Relativistic Particles

  • Norbert Dragon
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Physics book series (SpringerBriefs in Physics)


The time evolution of particles and fields is characterized by a corresponding functional, the action. It is stationary for the real evolution as compared to other imaginable evolutions. This principle of the stationary action allows to understand the conservation of energy, momentum and angular momentum as consequences of symmetries, because to each infinitesimal symmetry of the action there corresponds a conserved quantity and, vice versa, to each conserved quantity there corresponds an infinitesimal symmetry of the action. Physical and geometrical properties, conservation laws and symmetries, are intimately related by this Noether theorem.


Lorentz Transformation Dual Vector Temporal Translation Infinitesimal Transformation Physical Path 
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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Theoretische PhysikLeibniz Universität HannoverHannoverGermany

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