Advertisement

BCNF via Attribute Splitting

  • Johann A. Makowsky
  • Elena V. Ravve
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7260)

Abstract

Boyce-Codd-Heath introduced criteria for good database design, which can be formulated in terms of FD’s only. Classical design decomposes relations iteratively using projections. BCNF can not be always achieved using projections alone. 3NF was introduced as a compromise. In this paper we summarize all the known characterizations of BCNF and formulate a new one. In [MR96], attribute splitting was suggested as a heuristics to achieve BCNF in case projections do not do the job. Here we show how attribute splitting can be used to restructure a database scheme iteratively such that the result will be in BCNF, is information preserving and preserves the functional dependencies.

Keywords

Normal Form Relational Database Functional Dependency Relation Scheme Minimal Cover 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [AHV94]
    Abiteboul, S., Hull, R., Vianu, V.: Foundations of Database. Addison Wesley (1994)Google Scholar
  2. [AL04]
    Arenas, M., Libkin, L.: A normal form for XML documents. ACM Transactions on Database Systems 29(1), 195–232 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [AL05]
    Arenas, M., Libkin, L.: An information-theoretic approach to normal forms for relational and XML data. Journal of ACM 52(2), 246–283 (2005)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. [BG80]
    Bernstein, P.A., Goodman, N.: What does Boyce-Codd normal form do? In. In: Sixth Conference on VLDB, pp. 245–259 (1980)Google Scholar
  5. [Bis95a]
    Biskup, J.: Database Schema Design Theory: Achievements and Challenges. In: Bhalla, S. (ed.) CISMOD 1995. LNCS, vol. 1006, pp. 14–44. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [Bis95b]
    Biskup, J.: Grundlagen von Informationssystemen. Vieweg (1995)Google Scholar
  7. [Bis98]
    Biskup, J.: Achievements of relational database schema design theory revisited. In: Thalheim, B., Libkin, L. (eds.) Semantics in Databases, pp. 29–54. Springer, Berlin (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [Cod70]
    Codd, E.F.: A relational model of large shared data banks. Communications of the ACM 13(2), 377–387 (1970)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. [Cod72]
    Codd, E.F.: Further normalization of the data base relational models. In: Rustin, R. (ed.) Data Base Systems, pp. 33–64. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1972)Google Scholar
  10. [Cod74]
    Codd, E.F.: Recent investigation in relational data base systems. In: IFIP Proceedings, pp. 1017–1021 (1974)Google Scholar
  11. [Fag79]
    Fagin, R.: Normal forms and relational database operators. In: Proceedings of ACM-SIGMOD Conference on Management of Data, pp. 153–160 (1979)Google Scholar
  12. [FHK+11]
    Ferrarotti, F., Hartmann, S., Köhler, H., Link, S., Vincent, M.: The Boyce-Codd-Heath Normal Form for SQL. In: Beklemishev, L.D., de Queiroz, R. (eds.) WoLLIC 2011. LNCS, vol. 6642, pp. 110–122. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [Hea71]
    Heath, I.J.: Unacceptable file operations in a relational data base. In: Proc. 1971 ACM SIGFIDET Workshop on Data Description, Access, and Control, San Diego, Ca., pp. 19–33 (1971)Google Scholar
  14. [LL99]
    Levene, M., Loizou, G.: Guided Tour of Relational Databases and Beyond. Springer, London (1999)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. [MR92]
    Mannila, H., Räihä, K.J.: The Design of Relational Databases. Addison-Wesley (1992)Google Scholar
  16. [MR96]
    Makowsky, J.A., Ravve, E.: Translation Schemes and the Fundamental Problem of Database Design. In: Thalheim, B. (ed.) ER 1996. LNCS, vol. 1157, pp. 5–26. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [MR97]
    Makowsky, J.A., Ravve, E.V.: Dependency preserving refinement and the fundamental problem of database design. Data and Knowledge Engineering 24(3), 277–312 (1997)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. [MWV04]
    Liu, C., Vincent, M.W., Liu, J.: Strong functional dependencies and their application to normal forms in XML. ACM Transactions on Database Systems 29(3), 445–462 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [Sch05]
    Schewe, K.-D.: Redundancy, dependencies and normal forms for xml databases. In: Dobbie, G., Williams, H. (eds.) Sixteenth Australasian Database Conference (ADC 2005). Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology, vol. 39, pp. 7–16. University of Newcastle, Newcastle (2005)Google Scholar
  20. [Sci86]
    Sciore, E.: Comparing the universal instance and relational data models. In: Kanellakis, P.C., Preparata, F. (eds.) The Theory of Databases. Advances in Computing Research, vol. 3, pp. 139–163. JAI Press, Inc., Greenwich (1986)Google Scholar
  21. [Tha00]
    Thalheim, B.: Entity-Relationship Modeling: Foundations of Database Technology. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. [Tri09]
    Trinh, D.-T.: XML Functional Dependencies based on Tree Homomorphisms. PhD thesis, Faculty of Mathematics/Informatics and Mechanical Engineering, Clausthal University of Technology, Clausthal, Germany (2009)Google Scholar
  23. [Ull82]
    Ullman, J.D.: Principles of Database Systems, 2nd edn. Principles of Computer Science Series. Computer Science Press (1982)Google Scholar
  24. [Vin94]
    Vincent, M.W.: The Semantic Justification of Normal Forms in Relational database Design. PhD thesis, Department of Computer Science, Monash University, Australia (1994)Google Scholar
  25. [Vin98]
    Vincent, M.W.: Redundancy Elimination and a New Normal Form for Relational Database Design. In: Thalheim, B., Libkin, L. (eds.) Semantics in Databases 1995. LNCS, vol. 1358, pp. 247–264. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [VL97]
    Vincent, M.W., Levene, M.: Restructuring partitioned normal form relations without information loss. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Management of Data (COMAD), Bombay, pp. 111–124 (1997)Google Scholar
  27. [VS93]
    Vincent, M.W., Srinivasan, B.: A note on relation schemes which are in 3NF but not in BCNF. Information Processing Letters 48, 281–283 (1993)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Johann A. Makowsky
    • 1
  • Elena V. Ravve
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceTechnion - Israel Institute of TechnologyHaifaIsrael
  2. 2.Department of Software EngineeringORT Braude CollegeKarmielIsrael

Personalised recommendations