Understanding wasted/ineffective efforts in mechanically ventilated COPD patients using the Campbell diagram

  • Theodoros Vassilakopoulos


Wasted or ineffective efforts are inspiratory efforts that fail to trigger the ventilator [1]. Nearly 25% of mechanically ventilated patients exhibit ineffective efforts which are even more frequent in COPD patients [2]. The pathophysiology of wasted efforts can be illustratively presented using the Campbell diagram.


Respir Crit Pressure Support Ventilation Inspiratory Muscle Inspiratory Effort Esophageal Pressure 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theodoros Vassilakopoulos
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Critical Care and Pulmonary ServicesUniversity of Athens Medical School, Evangelismos HospitalAthensGreece
  2. 2.Critical Care DepartmentEvangelismos HospitalAthensGreece

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