The Evolution of Higher Education in Russia
Understanding the effects of politics on the development of higher education in Russia is one key to understanding the development of organic chemistry in that nation. Since secular education in Russia went from high levels of autonomy to rigid central control as the monarch and policies changed, it behooves us to briefly look at the political events of the nineteenth century, and to see how these events affected the growth of the universities in Russia. As we shall see, this centralization of power in education tended to swing wildly from being very beneficial to the universities, permitting the innovations that would facilitate to the development of organic chemistry, to being a major impediment to innovation.
KeywordsNineteenth Century Preparatory School Constitutional Monarchy Russian Empire Imperial Capital
- 1.Russian uses the Cyrillic alphabet, and so names must be transliterated to the Roman alphabet. The exact transliteration used depends on the language into which the transliteration occurs, and even this is not a constant within the same language. A good example of this is provided by the name of N. N. Sokolov, which is transliterated into German as Socoloff by Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, and as Sokoloff by Erdmans Journal für Praktische Chemie. Throughout this book, the BGN/PCGN romanization system for Russian is used as the most intuitive for English speakers. The consonants ж, ц, ч, ш, and щ are transliterated as zh, ts, ch, sh, and shch, respectively. The vowels й, ы, э, ю, and я are transliterated as i, y, e, yu, and ya, respectively. The vowel е at the beginnings of words is transliterated as ye. The soft sign (ь) is rendered as ‘, and the hard sign (ъ) is rendered as “. In 1918, the Soviets consolidated the orthography of Russian alphabet, eliminating three letters, and dramatically reducing the use of the hard sign at the end of words; the Russian spelling of titles of articles has been modernized prior to transliteration. In citations of articles in western journals, names are given as transliterated by the journals.Google Scholar
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- 14.It is more difficult to find information about the history of St. Petersburg State University from its website, http://eng.spbu.ru/ [accessed November 10, 2011; it is suggested that one search the site under “history,” which brings up a number of hits, including the sites of several museums.
- 15.The index page for the history of Warsaw University can be found on its official website at: http://www.uw.edu.pl/en/page.php/about_uw/history.html [accessed November 10, 2011]. This site has links to several pages discussing the university through history.
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- 18.The history of Odessa national University named for I. L. Mechnikov is found at: http://onu.edu.ua/en/geninfo/history [accessed November 10, 2011].
- 19.The history of Tomsk State University can be found on its official website at: http://www.tsu.ru/WebDesign/TSU/coreen.nsf/structurl/history_doc1 [accessed November 10, 2011]
- 20.The history of the polytechnicum can be found at the official website of Riga Technical University: http://www.rtu.lv/en/content/view/1464/1168/lang,en/ [accessed November 10, 2011].