Realistic Simulation of Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks

  • Christian Haas
  • Joachim Wilke
  • Viktor Stöhr
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7158)

Abstract

In this paper we analyze whether energy consumption in a wireless sensor network (WSN) can be evaluated realistically and accurately using the Avrora simulation tool. For this purpose, results from a reference experiment using SANDbed, a WSN testbed with focus on energy measurements, and Avrora, a wireless sensor network simulation tool, are compared. In this experiment, we found a difference in total energy consumption up to 20% between simulation and reality. The analysis revealed several issues that influenced the accuracy of Avrora simulations. We thus adapted Avrora for dealing with the identified issues. A concluding evaluation shows that the improved Avrora+ reduces the difference between simulation and testbed to < 5%.

Keywords

Simulation Testbed Energy Usage Energy Efficiency 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Raghunathan, V., Schurgers, C., Park, S., Srivastava, M.B.: Energy-aware wireless microsensor networks. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 19(2), 40–50 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yick, J., Mukherjee, B., Ghosal, D.: Wireless sensor network survey. Computer Networks 52(12), 2292–2330 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Roy, A., Sarma, N.: Energy Saving in MAC Layer of Wireless Sensor Networks: a Survey. In: National Workshop in Design and Analysis of Algorithm (NWDAA), Tezpur University, India (2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schmitt, P.H., Werner, F.: Model Checking for Energy Efficient Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Networks. Technical report, Universität Karlsruhe, Aachen, Germany (2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shnayder, V., Hempstead, M., Chen, B.-R., Allen, G.W., Welsh, M.: Simulating the power consumption of large-scale sensor network applications. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys), pp. 188–200. ACM Press, New York (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen, F., Dietrich, I., German, R., Dressler, F.: An energy model for simulation studies of wireless sensor networks using omnet++. Praxis der Informationsverarbeitung und Kommunikation (PIK) 32(2), 133–138 (2009)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boulis, A.: Castalia: revealing pitfalls in designing distributed algorithms in WSN. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, pp. 407–408. ACM (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Titzeri, B.L., Lee, K.D., Palsberg, J.: Avrora: scalable sensor network simulation with precise timing. In: IPSN 2005: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Information Processing in Sensor Networks, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA, page 67 (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Haas, C., Wilke, J.: Energy Evaluations in Wireless Sensor Networks A Reality Check. In: Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems (MSWiM), Miami Beach, Florida, USA, pp. 27–30. ACM Press (November 2011)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Österlind, F., Eriksson, J., Dunkels, A.: Cooja TimeLine: a power visualizer for sensor network simulation. In: Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems, Zurich, Switzerland, pp. 385–386. ACM Press (November 2010)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jevtić, M., Zogović, N., Dimić, G.: Evaluation of wireless sensor network simulators. In: Proceedings of the 17th Telecommunications Forum (TELFOR 2009), Belgrade, Serbia, pp. 1303–1306 (2009)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zennaro, M., Bagula, A., Gascon, D., Noveleta, A.B.: Long distance wireless sensor networks: simulation vs reality. In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM Workshop on Networked Systems for Developing Regions, page 12. ACM (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Halkes, G.P., Langendoen, K.G.: Experimental Evaluation of Simulation Abstractions for Wireless Sensor Network MAC Protocols. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 1–10 (2010)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pham, H.N., Pediaditakis, D., Boulis, A.: From simulation to real deployments in WSN and back. In: IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, WoWMoM 2007, pp. 1–6. IEEE (2007)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gama, Ó., Carvalho, P., Mendes, P.: A Model to Improve the Accuracy of WSN Simulations. In: Masip-Bruin, X., Verchere, D., Tsaoussidis, V., Yannuzzi, M. (eds.) WWIC 2011. LNCS, vol. 6649, pp. 128–139. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bergamini, L., Crociani, C., Vitaletti, A., Nati, M.: Validation of WSN simulators through a comparison with a real testbed. In: Proceedings of the 7th ACM Workshop on Performance Evaluation of Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor, and Ubiquitous networks, pp. 103–104. ACM (2010)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hurni, P., Nyffenegger, B., Braun, T., Hergenroeder, A.: On the Accuracy of Software-Based Energy Estimation Techniques. In: Marrón, P.J., Whitehouse, K. (eds.) EWSN 2011. LNCS, vol. 6567, pp. 49–64. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fonseca, R., Dutta, P., Levis, P., Stoica, I.: Quanto: Tracking energy in networked embedded systems. In: Draves, R., van Renesse, R. (eds.) Proceedings of the 8th USENIX Conference on Operating Systems Design and Implementation (OSDI), San Diego, California, USA, pp. 323–338. USENIX Association (December 2008)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hergenröder, A., Wilke, J., Meier, D.: Distributed Energy Measurements in WSN Testbeds with a Sensor Node Management Device (SNMD). In: Beigl, M., Cazorla-Almeida, F.J. (eds.) Workshop Proceedings of the 23th International Conference on Architecture of Computing Systems (ARCS), Hannover, Germany, pp. 341–438. VDE Verlag (February 2010)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hergenröder, A., Horneber, J., Wilke, J.: SANDbed: A WSAN Testbed for Network Management and Energy Monitoring. In: Proceedings of the 8th GI/ITG KuVS Fachgespräch ”Drahtlose Sensornetze”, Hamburg-Harburg, Germany, pp. 71–73. TUUH (August 2009)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hergenröder, A., Horneber, J.: Facing Challenges in Evaluation of WSN Energy Efficiency with Distributed Energy Measurements. In: Multihop Wireless Network Testbeds and Experiments Workshop. IEEE Computer Society (July 2011)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Haas
    • 1
  • Joachim Wilke
    • 1
  • Viktor Stöhr
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of TelematicsKarlsruhe Institute of TechnologyGermany

Personalised recommendations