On-the-Fly Calibration of Low-Cost Gas Sensors

  • David Hasenfratz
  • Olga Saukh
  • Lothar Thiele
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7158)

Abstract

Air quality monitoring is extremely important as air pollution has a direct impact on human health. Low-cost gas sensors are used to effectively perceive the environment by mounting them on top of mobile vehicles, for example, using a public transport network. Thus, these sensors are part of a mobile network and perform from time to time measurements in each others vicinity. In this paper, we study three calibration algorithms that exploit co-located sensor measurements to enhance sensor calibration and consequently the quality of the pollution measurements on-the-fly. Forward calibration, based on a traditional approach widely used in the literature, is used as performance benchmark for two novel algorithms: backward and instant calibration. We validate all three algorithms with real ozone pollution measurements carried out in an urban setting by comparing gas sensor output to high-quality measurements from analytical instruments. We find that both backward and instant calibration reduce the average measurement error by a factor of two compared to forward calibration. Furthermore, we unveil the arising difficulties if sensor calibration is not based on reliable reference measurements but on sensor readings of low-cost gas sensors which is inevitable in a mobile scenario with only a few reliable sensors. We propose a solution and evaluate its effect on the measurement accuracy in experiments and simulation.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    EU Directive 2008/50/EC. Official Journal of the European Union No. L 152Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aberer, K., Sathe, S., Chakraborty, D., Martinoli, A., Barrenetxea, G., Faltings, B., Thiele, L.: OpenSense: Open community driven sensing of environment. In: ACM IWGS (2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    BAFU and EMPA. Messresultate NABEL (2009)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Balzano, L., Nowak, R.: Blind calibration of sensor networks. In: ACM/IEEE IPSN (2007)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Björck, A.: Numerical methods for least squares problems. In: SIAM (1996)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boscolo, A., Mangiavacchi, C.: Pollution dynamic monitoring system for city air quality control. In: IEEE IMTC (1998)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Buchli, B., Yuecel, M., Lim, R., Gsell, T., Beutel, J.: Demo abstract: Feature-rich platform for WSN design space exploration. In: ACM/IEEE IPSN (2011)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bychkovskiy, V., Megerian, S., Estrin, D., Potkonjak, M.: A collaborative approach to in-place sensor calibration. In: ACM/IEEE IPSN (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Carotta, M.C., Martinelli, G., Crema, L., Malagù, C., Merli, M., Ghiotti, G., Traversa, E.: Nanostructured thick-film gas sensors for atmospheric pollutant monitoring: quantitative analysis on field tests. In: Elsevier Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Carullo, A., Corbellini, S., Grassini, S.: A remotely controlled calibrator for chemical pollutant measuring-units. In: IEEE TIM (2007)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Choi, S., Kim, N., Cha, H., Ha, R.: Micro sensor node for air pollutant monitoring: Hardware and software issues. In: Sensors MEMS (2009)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    De Vito, S., Massera, E., Piga, M., Martinotto, L., Di Francia, G.: On field calibration of an electronic nose for benzene estimation in an urban pollution monitoring scenario. In: Elsevier Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical (2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gupchup, J., Musăloiu-E., R., Szalay, A., Terzis, A.: Sundial: Using Sunlight to Reconstruct Global Timestamps. In: Roedig, U., Sreenan, C.J. (eds.) EWSN 2009. LNCS, vol. 5432, pp. 183–198. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Honicky, R.J., Brewer, E.A., Paulos, E., White, R.M.: N-smarts: Networked suite of mobile atmospheric real-time sensors. In: ACM NSDR (2008)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Huan, C., Zhiyu, L., Gang, F.: Analysis of the aging characteristics of SnO2 gas sensors. In: Elsevier Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical (2011)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kamionka, M., Breuil, P., Pijolat, C.: Calibration of a multivariate gas sensing device for atmospheric pollution measurement. In: Elsevier Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical (2006)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mage, D., Ozolins, G., Peterson, P., Webster, A., Orthofer, R., Vandeweerd, V., Gwynne, M.: Urban air pollution in megacities of the world. In: Elsevier Atmospheric Environment (1996)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Makadmini, L., Horn, M.: Self-calibrating electrochemical gas sensor. In: IEEE TRANSDUCERS (1997)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Maróti, M., Kusy, B., Simon, G., Lédeczi, Á.: The flooding time synchronization protocol. In: ACM SenSys (2004)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Miluzzo, E., Lane, N.D., Campbell, A.T., Olfati-Saber, R.: CaliBree: A self-calibration system for mobile sensor networks. In: IEEE DCOSS (2008)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Murty, R.N., Mainland, G., Rose, I., Chowdhury, A.R., Gosaint, A., Berst, J., Welsh, M.: Citysense: An urban-scale wireless sensor network and testbed. In: IEEE HST (2008)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nyffeler, U.: Das Nationale Beobachtungsnetz für Luftfremdstoffe. In: BUWAL (2001)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pijolat, C., Pupier, C., Sauvan, M., Tournier, G., Lalauze, R.: Gas detection for automotive pollution control. In: Elsevier Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical (1999)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tsujita, W., Yoshino, A., Ishida, H., Moriizumi, T.: Gas sensor network for air-pollution monitoring. In: Elsevier Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical (2005)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Vardoulakis, S., Fisher, B.E.A., Pericleous, K., Gonzalez-Flesca, N.: Modelling air quality in street canyons: a review. In: Elsevier Atmospheric Environment (2003)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yamazoe, N., Miura, N.: Development of gas sensors for environmental protection. In: IEEE CPMT (1995)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Hasenfratz
    • 1
  • Olga Saukh
    • 1
  • Lothar Thiele
    • 1
  1. 1.Computer Engineering and Networks LaboratoryETH ZurichZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations