Finding Good Decompositions for Dynamic Programming on Dense Graphs
It is well-known that for graphs with high edge density the tree-width is always high while the clique-width can be low. Boolean-width is a new parameter that is never higher than tree-width or clique-width and can in fact be as small as logarithmic in clique-width. Boolean-width is defined using a decomposition tree by evaluating the number of neighborhoods across the resulting cuts of the graph. Several NP-hard problems can be solved efficiently by dynamic programming when given a decomposition of boolean-width k, e.g. Max Weight Independent Set in time O(n 2 k22k ) and Min Weight Dominating Set in time O(n 2 + nk23k ). Finding decompositions of low boolean-width is therefore of practical interest. There is evidence that computing boolean-width is hard, while the existence of a useful approximation algorithm is still open. In this paper we introduce and study a heuristic algorithm that finds a reasonably good decomposition to be used for dynamic programming based on boolean-width. On a set of graphs of practical relevance, specifically graphs in TreewidthLIB, the best known upper bound on their tree-width is compared to the upper bound on their boolean-width given by our heuristic. For the large majority of the graphs on which we made the tests, the tree-width bound is at least twice as big as the boolean-width bound, and boolean-width compares better the higher the edge density. This means that, for problems like Dominating Set, using boolean-width should outperform dynamic programming by tree-width, at least for graphs of edge density above a certain bound. In view of the amount of previous work on heuristics for tree-width these results indicate that boolean-width could in the future outperform tree-width in practice for a large class of graphs and problems.
KeywordsLocal Search Dynamic Programming Edge Density Decomposition Tree Dense Graph
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