Tools to Characterize Nanomaterials
The characterization of small structures or small-sized materials in the nanometric-scale usually calls for sophisticated characterization tools. Characterization of nanomaterials and nanostructures has been largely based on certain critical advancement of conventional characterization methods developed for bulk materials. For example, X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been widely used for the determination of crystalline character, crystallite size, crystal structures and lattice constants of nanoparticles, nanowires and thin films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), together with electron diffraction, have been commonly used in the characterization of nanoparticles to get an idea of the size, shape and defects present in these materials.
KeywordsAtomic Force Microscope Scanning Tunnelling Microscope Atom Probe Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy Tunnelling Current
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