15 Migrants’ Citizenship and Rights: Limits and Potential for NGOs’ Advocacy in Chile

  • Claudia Mora
  • Jeff Handmaker
Open Access
Chapter
Part of the Hexagon Series on Human and Environmental Security and Peace book series (HSHES, volume 9)

Abstract

In this chapter we address the structural and institutional constraints faced by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) assisting Peruvian migrants in Chile to advocate for migrants’ rights. We argue that these constraints have provoked reactive rather than proactive strategic responses by NGOs in their promotion of migrants’ rights. In addition, the unchallenged acceptance of a traditional notion of citizenship has placed Chilean NGOs as short-term service providers rather than as long-term advocates. We propose that a conscious recognition of the possibilities opened up by international legal regimes to confront nation-states’ regulation of migrants’ rights offers a pragmatic approach to navigating such limits.

Keywords

citizenship liminal legality migrant advocacy rights translation stratification 

References

  1. Abel R (1995) Politics By Other Means: Law in the Struggle Against Apartheid, 19801994. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Barber, Pauline Gardiner, 2006: “Locating Gendered Subjects in Vocabularies of Citizenship”, in: Tastsoglou, Evangelia; Dobrowolsky, Alexandria (Eds.) Women, Migration and Citizenship (Aldershot, Ashgate): 61– 84.Google Scholar
  3. Basok, Tanya, 2004: “Post-national Citizenship, Social Exclusion and Migrants Rights: Mexican Seasonal Workers in Canada”, in: Citizenship Studies, 8, 1: 47– 64.Google Scholar
  4. Battistella, Graziano, 1993: “The Human Rights of Migrant Workers: Agenda for NGOs”, in: International Migration Review, 27, 1: 191–201.Google Scholar
  5. Committee on Migrant Workers, 2011: “Concluding Observations”, Heard at the 15th Session, 12–23 September 2011, CMW/C/CHL/CO/1.Google Scholar
  6. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, 1965: Passed by the UN General Assembly on 21 December 1965, in: UN Treaty Series, 660: 195.Google Scholar
  7. Convention on the Rights of the Child, (1989) Passed by the UN General Assembly on 20 November 1989. UN Treaty Series 1577:3Google Scholar
  8. Cornelisse G (2010) Immigration detention and human rights: rethinking territorial Sovereignty. Martinus Nijhoff, LeidenCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Certeau D, Michel, (2000) La Invención de lo Cotidiano: I. Artes de Hacer. Universidad beroamericana, Mexico CityGoogle Scholar
  10. Fraser, Nancy, 2003: “Social Justice in the Age of Identity Politics: Redistribution, Recognition, and Participation”, in: Fraser, Nancy and Honneth, Axel (Eds.) Redistribution or Recognition: A Political – Philosophical Exchange (London: Verso): 7–109.Google Scholar
  11. Fraser N (2009) Who Counts? Dilemmas of Justice in a Postwestphalian World. Antipode 41:281–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Halfmann, Jost, 1998: “Citizenship Universalism, Migration and the Risks of Exclusion”, in: The British Journal of Sociology, 49, 4: 513–533.Google Scholar
  13. Hertogh M (2009) Living Law: Reconsidering Eugen Ehrlich. Hart, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  14. Handmaker J (2009) Advocating for Accountability: Civic-state Interactions to Protect Refugees in South Africa. Intersentia, AntwerpGoogle Scholar
  15. Handmaker, Jeff, 2011: “State security and the mantra of irregular migration”, Paper for the Conference on Irrelevant, Advisors or Decision-Makers? The Role of ‘Experts’ in International Decision-Making, Rotterdam, 24–26 June.Google Scholar
  16. Ignatieff M (1999) Whose Universal Values? The Crisis in Human Rights. Stichting Praemium Erasmianum, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  17. International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families, 1990: Passed by the UN General Assembly on 18 December 1990, A/RES/45/158.Google Scholar
  18. Klaaren J, Dugard J, Handmaker J (eds) (2011) South African Journal on Human Rights (Special Issue on Public Interest Litigation) 27:1Google Scholar
  19. Korey, William (Ed.), 2003: NGOs and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: ‘a curious grapevine’ (New York; Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan).Google Scholar
  20. Martinez Pizarro, Jorge (Ed.), 2011: Migración internacional en América Latina y el Caribe Nuevas tendencias, nuevos enfoques (Santiago de Chile: CEPAL).Google Scholar
  21. Menjivar, Cecilia, 2006: “Liminal Legality: Salvadoran and Guatemalan Immigrants’ Lives in the United States”, in: American Journal of Sociology, 111, 4: 999–1037.Google Scholar
  22. Merry, Sally Engle, 2006a: “Transnational Human Rights and Local Activism: Mapping the Middle”, in: American Anthropologist, 108, 1: 38–51.Google Scholar
  23. Merry SE (2006) Human Rights and Gender Violence: Translating International Law into Local Justice. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  24. Mora, Claudia, 2008: “The Peruvian community in Chile as a response to discrimination and exclusion”, in: Peace Review, 20, 3: 339–347.Google Scholar
  25. Mora C (2009) “Estratificación Social y Migración Intrarregional: Algunas Caracterizaciones de la Experiencia Migratoria en Latinoamérica”, in: Revista. Universum 24(1):128–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mora, Claudia, 2011: “Global Inequalities – Local Hierarchies. Peruvian Migrants’ Labour Niches and Occupational Mobility in Chile”, in: Boike Rehbein, (Ed.) Globalization and Inequality in Emerging Societies (New York: Palgrave Macmillan): 256–269.Google Scholar
  27. Mora, Claudia and Piper, Nicola, 2011 “Notions of Rights and Entitlements Among Peruvian Female Workers in Chile”, in: Diversities, 13, 1: 5–18.Google Scholar
  28. Nakano Glenn, Evelyn, 2011: “Constructing Citizenship: Exclusion, Subordination, and Resistance”, in: American Sociological Review, 76, 1: 1–24.Google Scholar
  29. Ong A (2006) Experiments with Freedom: Milieus of the Human. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  30. Risse T, Ropp S, Sikkink K (1999) The Power Of Human Rights: International Norms and Domestic Change. Cambridge University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sassen S (1998) Globalization and Its Discontents: Essays on the New Mobility of People and Money. New Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Satterthwaite M (2005) Crossing Borders, Claiming Rights: Using Human Rights Law to Empower Women Migrant Workers. Yale Human Rights and Development Law Journal 8:1–66Google Scholar
  33. Soysal Y (1997) Changing Parameters of Citizenship and Claims-making: Organized Islam in European Public Spheres. Theory and Society 26:509–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948: Passed by the UN General Assembly on 10 December 1948, 217 A (III).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2014

Open Access. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction any medium, provided the original author(s) and in source are credited.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Claudia Mora
    • 1
  • Jeff Handmaker
    • 2
  1. 1.Universidad Alberto HurtadoSantiagoChile
  2. 2.Erasmus UniversityRotterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations