Hypoxia Imaging Agents Labeled with Positron Emitters

  • Lathika Hoigebazar
  • Jae Min Jeong
Conference paper
Part of the Recent Results in Cancer Research book series (RECENTCANCER, volume 194)


Imaging hypoxia using positron emission tomography (PET) is of great importance for therapy of cancer. [18F]Fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) was the first PET agent for hypoxia imaging, and various radiolabeled nitroimidazole derivatives such as [18F]fluoroerythronitroimidazole (FETNIM), [18F]1-α-d-(2-deoxy-2-fluoroarabinofuranosyl)-2-nitroimidazole (FAZA), [18F]2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl) acetamide (EF-5), and [18F]fluoroetanidazole (FETA) have been developed successively. To overcome the high cost of cyclotron installation, 68Ga-labeled nitroimidazole derivatives also have been developed. Another important hypoxia imaging agent is 64Cu-diacetyl-bis(N 4-methylthiosemicarbazone) (64Cu-ATSM), which can distribute in cancer tissue rapidly due to high lipophilicity. However, its application is limited due to high cost of radionuclide production. Although various hypoxia imaging agents have been reported and tested, hypoxia PET images still have to be improved, because of the low blood flow in hypoxic tissues and resulting low uptake of the agents.


Positron Emission Tomography Tumor Hypoxia Hypoxic Cell Selective Retention Copper Isotope 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nuclear MedicineSeoul National University College of MedicineSeoulKorea

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