BloomCasting: Security in Bloom Filter Based Multicast

  • Mikko Särelä
  • Christian Esteve Rothenberg
  • András Zahemszky
  • Pekka Nikander
  • Jörg Ott
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7127)

Abstract

Traditional multicasting techniques give senders and receivers little control for who can receive or send to the group and enable end hosts to attack the multicast infrastructure by creating large amounts of group specific state. Bloom filter based multicast has been proposed as a solution to scaling multicast to large number of groups.

In this paper, we study the security of multicast built on Bloom filter based forwarding and propose a technique called BloomCasting, which enables controlled multicast packet forwarding. Bloomcasting group management is handled at the source, which gives control over the receivers to the source. Cryptographically computed edge-pair labels give receivers control over from whom to receive. We evaluate a series of data plane attack vectors based on exploiting the false positives in Bloom filters and show that the security issues can be averted by (i) locally varying the Bloom filter parameters, (ii) the use of keyed hash functions, and (iii) per hop bit permutations on the Bloom filter carried in the packet header.

Keywords

Hash Function Multicast Tree Multicast Group Bloom Filter Host Identity Protocol 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adkins, D., Lakshminarayanan, K., Perrig, A., Stoica, I.: Towards a more functional and secure network infrastructure (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson, T., Roscoe, T., Wetherall, D.: Preventing Internet denial-of-service with capabilities. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review 34(1), 44 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Atwood, W., Islam, S., Siami, M.: Authentication and Confidentiality in Protocol Independent Multicast Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) Link-Local Messages. RFC 5796 (Proposed Standard) (March 2010), http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc5796.txt
  4. 4.
    Aura, T., Nikander, P.: Stateless Connections. In: Han, Y., Quing, S. (eds.) ICICS 1997. LNCS, vol. 1334, pp. 87–97. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Back, A., Möller, U., Stiglic, A.: Traffic Analysis Attacks and Trade-Offs in Anonymity Providing Systems. In: Moskowitz, I.S. (ed.) IH 2001. LNCS, vol. 2137, pp. 245–257. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ballardie, T., Crowcroft, J.: Multicast-specific security threats and counter-measures. In: SNDSS 1995: Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Network and Distributed System Security (SNDSS 1995), p. 2. IEEE Computer Society, Washington, DC (1995)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barbir, A., Murphy, S., Yang, Y.: Generic Threats to Routing Protocols. RFC 4593 (Informational) (October 2006), http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4593.txt
  8. 8.
    Bates, T., Chandra, R., Katz, D., Rekhter, Y.: Multiprotocol Extensions for BGP-4. RFC 4760 (Draft Standard) (January 2007), http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4760.txt
  9. 9.
    Bhattacharyya, S.: An Overview of Source-Specific Multicast (SSM). RFC 3569 (Informational) (July 2003), http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3569.txt
  10. 10.
    Bloom, B.H.: Space/time trade-offs in hash coding with allowable errors. Commun. ACM 13(7), 422–426 (1970)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Canetti, R., Pinkas, B.: A taxonomy of multicast security issues. IRTF Internet-Draft (draft-irtf-smug-taxonomy-01) (August 2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Diot, C., Dabbous, W., Crowcroft, J.: Multipoint communication: A survey of protocols, functions, and mechanisms. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 15(3), 277–290 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Esteve, C., Jokela, P., Nikander, P., Särelä, M., Ylitalo, J.: Self-routing Denial-of-Service Resistant Capabilities using In-packet Bloom Filters. In: Proceedings of European Conference on Computer Network Defence, EC2ND (2009)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hardjono, T., Canetti, R., Baugher, M., Dinsmore, P.: Secure ip multicast: Problem areas, framework, and building blocks. IRTF Internet-Draft (draft-irtf-smug-framework-01) (September 2000)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hardjono, T., Weis, B.: The Multicast Group Security Architecture. RFC 3740 (Informational) (March 2004), http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3740.txt
  16. 16.
    Jokela, P., Zahemszky, A., Esteve, C., Arianfar, S., Nikander, P.: LIPSIN: Line speed publish/subscribe inter-networking. In: SIGCOMM (2009)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Judge, P., Ammar, M.: Gothic: a group access control architecture for secure multicast and anycast. In: INFOCOM 2002. Twenty-First Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies. Proceedings. IEEE, vol. 3, pp. 1547–1556 (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Judge, P., Ammar, M.: Security issues and solutions in multicast content distribution: A survey. IEEE Network 17, 30–36 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kleinrock, L., Kamoun, F.: Hierarchical routing for large networks Performance evaluation and optimization. Computer Networks 1(3), 155 (1976/1977)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Krawczyk, H.: LFSR-Based Hashing and Authentication. In: Desmedt, Y.G. (ed.) CRYPTO 1994. LNCS, vol. 839, pp. 129–139. Springer, Heidelberg (1994)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Moskowitz, R., Nikander, P.: Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Architecture. RFC 4423 (Informational) (May 2006), http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4423.txt
  22. 22.
    Moyer, M., Rao, J., Rohatgi, P.: A survey of security issues in multicast communications. IEEE Network 13(6), 12–23 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Paul, P., Raghavan, S.V.: Survey of multicast routing algorithms and protocols. In: ICCC 2002: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Computer Communication, pp. 902–926. International Council for Computer Communication, Washington, DC (2002)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rafaeli, S., Hutchison, D.: A survey of key management for secure group communication. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 35(3), 329 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ratnasamy, S., Ermolinskiy, A., Shenker, S.: Revisiting IP multicast. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review 36(4), 26 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Särelä, M., Rothenberg, C.E., Aura, T., Zahemszky, A., Nikander, P., Ott, J.: Forwarding Anomalies in Bloom Filter Based Multicast. Tech. rep., Aalto University (October 2010)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Savola, P., Lehtonen, R., Meyer, D.: Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM) Multicast Routing Security Issues and Enhancements. RFC 4609 (Informational) (October 2006), http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4609.txt
  28. 28.
    Shields, C., Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J.J.: Khip—a scalable protocol for secure multicast routing. In: SIGCOMM 1999: Proceedings of the Conference on Applications, Technologies, Architectures, and Protocols for Computer Communication, pp. 53–64. ACM, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sy, D., Chen, R., Bao, L.: Odar: On-demand anonymous routing in ad hoc networks. In: Proc. of IEEE Mobile Adhoc and Sensor Systems (MASS), pp. 267–276 (2006)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wolf, T.: A credential-based data path architecture for assurable global networking. In: Proc. of IEEE MILCOM, Orlando, FL (October 2007)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yuksel, K.: Universal hashing for ultra-low-power cryptographic hardware applications. Ph.D. thesis, Citeseer (2004)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zahemszky, A., Jokela, P., Särelä, M., Ruponen, S., Kempf, J., Nikander, P.: MPSS: Multiprotocol Stateless Switching. In: Global Internet Symposium 2010 (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mikko Särelä
  • Christian Esteve Rothenberg
  • András Zahemszky
  • Pekka Nikander
  • Jörg Ott

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations