Australian Copyright Regimes and Political Economy of Music
In this chapter I review the history of copyright in Australia through a singular and exemplary ruling of the Australian High Court made in 2012 and then relate that to the declining fortunes of Australian recorded music professionals. The case in point is Phonographic Performance Company [PPCA] of Australia Limited v Commonwealth of Australia  HCA 8 (hereafter, HCA 8 2012). The case encapsulates the history of copyright law in Australia, with the judicial decision drawing substantive parts of its rationale from the Statute of Anne (8 Anne, c. 19, 1710), as well as copyright acts that regulated the Australian markets prior to 1968. More importantly the High Court decision serves to delineate some important political economic aspects of the recorded music professional in Australia and demonstrates Attali’s (1985) assertion that copyright is the mechanism through which composers are, by statute, literally excluded from capitalistic engagement as ‘productive labour’.
KeywordsCompulsory License Music Industry Copyright Infringement Musical Work Record Company
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. (1997). Cultural trends in Australia: A statistical overview, 4172.0. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2007). Music in Australia: A statistical overview. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2009). Cultural trends in Australia: A statistical overview, 4172.0. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2010). Arts and culture in Australia: A statistical overview, 4172.0. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2011). Arts and culture in Australia: A statistical overview, 4172.0. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics.Google Scholar
- Atkinson, B. (2007). The true history of copyright 1905–2005: The Australian experience. Sydney: Sydney University Press.Google Scholar
- Attali, J. (1985). Noise: The political economy of music (trans: Masumi, B.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
- Attorney General of Australia. (2005). Review of one per cent cap on licence fees paid to copyright owners for playing sound recordings on the radio [discussion paper]. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
- Australasian Performing Rights Association. (2012). Radio: Commercial broadcasters. http://www.apra-amcos.com.au/musicconsumers/broadcastmusicradioortv/radio–commercialbroadcasters.aspx. Accessed June 2012.
- Australasian Performing Right Association. (2011). Economic contribution of the venue-based live music industry in Australia. Sydney: APRA.Google Scholar
- Commercial Radio Australia (CRA). (2012a). Commercial radio Australia annual report 2011–12. Sydney: Commercial Radio Australia.Google Scholar
- Commercial Radio Australia (CRA). (2012b). What is commercial radio Australia? http://www.commercialradio.com.au/index.cfm?page_id=1002. Accessed Nov 2012.
- Commercial Radio Australia (CRA). (2012c). Radio today. http://commradio.cra.predelegation.com/index2.cfm?pageparent_id=0&page_id=1010. Accessed Mar 2012.
- Deloitte Access Economics. (2011). The economic, social and cultural contribution of venue-based live music in Victoria. Melbourne: Arts Victoria.Google Scholar
- Donaldson v. Becket (1774) Hansard, 1st ser., 17 (1774): 953–1003Google Scholar
- Graham, P. (2012). New digital business models for recorded music. MCA Music Forum, Autumn, 18–22.Google Scholar
- Graham, P. (2006). Hypercapitalism: Language, new media, and social perceptions of value. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
- Graham, P. (2005). Monopoly, monopsony, and the value of culture in a knowledge economy: An axiology of two multimedia resource repositories. In C. Kapitzke & A. Luke (Eds.), Libraries @ the Arobase: Changing information space and practice. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- High Court of Australia. (2012). Phonographic performance company of Australia limited v commonwealth of Australia  HCA 8. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/HCA/2012/8.html. Accessed 12 June 2012.
- Johnson, B., & Homan, S. (2003). Vanishing acts: An inquiry into the state of live popular music opportunities in New South Wales. Sydney: Australia Council and the NSW Ministry for the Arts.Google Scholar
- Marx, K. (1844/1975). Economic and philosophical manuscripts. In Marx, K. (1975). Early Writings. (trans. Livingstone, R. & Benton, G.) (pp. 279–400). London: Penguin.Google Scholar
- Mason, P. (2005). MCA radio paper. Music Council of Australia, Sydney. http://www.mca.org.au/research/research-reports/research-reports/637-assessing-the-impact-of-australian-music-requirements-for-radio. Accessed Nov 2011.
- Milesago. (2012). Australasian popular music of the 1960s and 1970s: An overview. http://www.milesago.com/Overview.htm. Accessed June 2012.
- O’Brien, D., & Fitzgerald, B. (2006). Mashups, remixes and copyright law. Internet Law Bulletin, 9, 17–19.Google Scholar
- Ochoa, T., & Rose, M. (2002). The anti-monopoly origins of the patent and copyright clause. Journal of the Patent and Trademark Office Society, 84(909), 675–706.Google Scholar
- Resnikoff, P. (2011). There are 97,000,000 songs in this world. Digital Music News, October 7, 2011. http://www.digitalmusicnews.com/stories/100611supersaturation. Accessed Nov 2011.
- Simpson, S., & Munro, J. (2012). Music business (4th ed.). London: Omnibus Press.Google Scholar
- Smythe, D. (1981). Dependency road: Communications, capitalism, consciousness, and Canada. New York: Ablex Publishing.Google Scholar
- Village Roadshow. (2001). Austereo maintains strong leadership of Australian radio market. http://www.villageroadshow.com.au/upload/Document/VRL%20Austereo%20Ratings.pdf. Accessed Mar 2012.