Modeling and Validating the Train Fare Calculation and Adjustment System Using VDM++

  • Nguyen Van Tang
  • Daisuke Souma
  • Goro Hatayama
  • Hitoshi Ohsaki
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7152)


The Train Fare Calculation and Adjustment System (TFCAS), developed by the OMRON Corporation, is a large-scale and complex system that helps passengers buy tickets and adjust their train fare on the railways across Japan. In this paper we present the results and experiences gained in a collaborative research project between AIST and OMRON, in which VDM++ has been applied to formalize TFCAS’s specifications and validate its consistency as well as reliability properties. An executable VDM++ model can be used to raise the level of the quality of the informal system specification, the efficiency of existing system test-suites, and the quality of real implementation. The application of VDM++ enables us to detect 32 erroneous issues in the original informal specification document. Moreover, we also show how the development process can be improved in a front-loading manner using the formal method VDM++.


Formal Method Design Document Ticket Price Linear Time Temporal Logic Train System 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nguyen Van Tang
    • 1
  • Daisuke Souma
    • 1
  • Goro Hatayama
    • 2
  • Hitoshi Ohsaki
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Team for Verification and SpecificationNational Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyJapan
  2. 2.Core Technology Development DepartmentOmron Social Solutions Co., LtdJapan

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