Gender Role Stereotypes in the Perception of Mathematics: An Empirical Study with Secondary Students in Germany

  • Gabriele Kaiser
  • Maren Hoffstall
  • Anna B. Orschulik
Part of the Advances in Mathematics Education book series (AME)


Findings from international educational studies such as TIMSS or PISA show that gender differences in mathematical achievements are now only marginal, or have completely vanished in many countries. Nevertheless, beliefs about the higher achievements in mathematics by boys are still widespread. In this chapter the results of a study of students’ views of gender-role stereotyping in mathematics are presented. For this study, 1244 German students from lower and upper secondary level (11–17 year olds) were tested using instruments developed by Forgasz and Leder concerned with gendered views of mathematics and mathematics education. The study clearly shows that as they grow up, boys as well as girls in contemporary Germany still have doubts concerning the equal mathematical performances of girls and boys, and internalise gendered stereotypes of girls being less talented and interested in mathematics, influenced by gender-role stereotypes within society, where mathematics is still described as a male domain.


Mathematics Teacher Gender Stereotype Mathematics Achievement German Student Australian Student 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriele Kaiser
    • 1
  • Maren Hoffstall
    • 1
  • Anna B. Orschulik
    • 1
  1. 1.University of HamburgHamburgGermany

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