The Effect of Temperature Factor on the Detection of Nitrate Based on Planar Electromagnetic Sensor and Independent Component Analysis

  • M. A. Md Yunus
  • S. C. Mukhopadhyay
  • Amal Punchihewa
  • Sallehuddin Ibrahim
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 146)


In this paper, the output parameters of the planar electromagnetic sensor have observed with different kind of water samples at different concentrations. The output parameters have been derived and tested to be incorporated with independent component analysis (ICA) and as inputs for an analysis model. The analysis model targeted to estimate the amount of nitrate contamination in water samples with the assistance of ICA based on FastICAfixed point algorithm under the contrast functions of pow3 and tanh. Nitrates sample in the form of ammonium nitrates (NH4NO3), each of different concentration between 5 mg and 20 mg dissolved in 1 litre of deionized water (mili-q) was used as one of the main references. A model based on independent component analysis was developed to estimate nitrate contamination in natural water source. The model was tested with two sets of mixed NH4NO3 and (NH4)2HPO4 water samples based on Manawatu river water. From the results, the model can acceptably detect the presence of nitrate in Manawatu River and capable of distinguishing the concentration level in the presence of other type of contamination. Furthermore, the effect of temperature change was also observed in this study. The system and approach presented in this paper has the potential to be used as a useful tool for water sources monitoring.


Water Sample Independent Component Analysis Ammonium Nitrate Independent Component Analysis Nitrate Contamination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Metcalf, N.F., Metcalf, W.K., Wang, X.: The Differing Sensitivities of the Hemoglobin of Fetal and Adult Red-Cells to Oxidation by Nitrites in Man - the Role of Plasma, p. 44Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Donald, L.P., Charles, D.F.: Water Quality for Livestock Drinking. MU Extension Publication, University of Missouri-Columbia EQ 381, 1–4 (2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Reichard, J., Brown, C.: Detecting groundwater contamination of a river in Georgia, USA using baseflow sampling. Hydrogeology Journal 17(3), 735–747 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ward, M.H., Kilfoy, B.A., Weyer, P.J., et al.: Nitrate Intake and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer and Thyroid Disease. Epidemiology 21(3), 389–395 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Terblanche, A.P.S.: Health hazards of nitrate in drinking water. Water Sa. 17(1), 77–82 (1991)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Downes, M.T.: An improved hydrazine reduction method for the automated determination of low nitrate levels in freshwater. Water Research 12(9), 673–675 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kjær, T., Hauer Larsen, L., Revsbech, N.P.: Sensitivity control of ion-selective biosensors by electrophoretically mediated analyte transport. Analytica Chimica Acta 391(1), 57–63 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hassan, S.S.M., Sayour, H.E.M., Al-Mehrezi, S.S.: A novel planar miniaturized potentiometric sensor for flow injection analysis of nitrates in wastewaters, fertilizers and pharmaceuticals. Analytica Chimica Acta 581(1), 13–18 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yunus, M.A.M., Mukhopadhyay, S.C.: Novel Planar Electromagnetic Sensors for Detection of Nitrates and Contamination in Natural Water Sources. IEEE, Sensors Journal 11(6), 1440–1447 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gonzalez, C., Greenwood, R., Quevauviller, P.: Rapid chemical and biological techniques for water monitoring. Wiley, Chichester (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Data Acquisition Data Book: National Semiconductor (1993)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stanley, E.W., et al.: Wireless temperature sensing using temperature-sensitive dielectrics within responding electric fields of open-circuit sensors having no electrical connections. Measurement Science and Technology 21(7), 075201(2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Garcia-Canton, J., Merlos, A., Baldi, A.: High-Quality Factor Electrolyte Insulator Silicon Capacitor for Wireless Chemical Sensing. IEEE, Electron Device Letters 28(1), 27–29 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jutten, C., Herault, J.: Blind separation of sources, part I: An adaptive algorithm based on neuromimetic architecture. Signal Processing 24(1), 1–10 (1991)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hyvärinen, A., Oja, E.: Independent component analysis: algorithms and applications. Neural Networks 13(4-5), 411–430 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang, G., Ding, Q., Hou, Z.: Independent component analysis and its applications in signal processing for analytical chemistry. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 27(4), 368–376 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chen, J., Wang, X.Z.: A New Approach to Near-Infrared Spectral Data Analysis Using Independent Component Analysis. Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Sciences 41(4), 992–1001 (2001)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shao, X., Wang, G., Wang, S., et al.: Extraction of Mass Spectra and Chromatographic Profiles from Overlapping GC/MS Signal with Background. Analytical Chemistry 76(17), 5143–5148 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu, Z., Cai, W., Shao, X.: Sequential extraction of mass spectra and chromatographic profiles from overlapping gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy signals. Journal of Chromatography A 1190(1-2), 358–364 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pasadakis, N., Kardamakis, A.A.: Identifying constituents in commercial gasoline using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and independent component analysis. Analytica Chimica Acta 578(2), 250–255 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Polder, G., van der Heijden, G.W.A.M., Young, I.T.: Tomato sorting using independent component analysis on spectral images. Real-Time Imaging 9(4), 253–259 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ling, B., Zeifman, M., Hu, J.: Rugged early-warning spectroscopic system for real-time environment water monitoring, pp. 42–50Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Vigario, R., Sarela, J., Jousmiki, V., et al.: Independent component approach to the analysis of EEG and MEG recordings. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 47(5), 589–593 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sevim, Y., Atasoy, A.: Performance evaluation of nonparametric ICA algorithm for fetal ECG extraction. Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences 19(4), 657–666 (2011)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang, G., Ding, Q., Sun, Y., et al.: Estimation of source infrared spectra profiles of acetylspiramycin active components from troches using kernel independent component analysis. Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 70(3), 571–576 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Saalbach, A., Lange, O., Nattkemper, T., et al.: On the application of (topographic) independent and tree-dependent component analysis for the examination of DCE-MRI data. Biomedical Signal Processing and Control 4(3), 247–253 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jian, M., Sun, Z.: Exploring the intrinsic structure of magnetic resonance spectra tumor data based on independent component analysis and correlation analysis, pp. 788–797 (2006)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hyvarinen, A.: Fast and robust fixed-point algorithms for independent component analysis. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks 10(3), 626–634 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ma, J., Sun, Z.: Exploring the Intrinsic Structure of Magnetic Resonance Spectra Tumor Data Based on Independent Component Analysis and Correlation Analysis Artificial Neutral Networks. In: Kollias, S.D., Stafylopatis, A., Duch, W., Oja, E. (eds.) ICANN 2006. LNCS, vol. 4132, pp. 788–797. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.

Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Md Yunus
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. C. Mukhopadhyay
    • 1
  • Amal Punchihewa
    • 1
  • Sallehuddin Ibrahim
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Engineering and Advanced TechnologyMassey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand
  2. 2.Control and Instrumentation Engineering DepartmentUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia

Personalised recommendations