Use of Moisturizers in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

  • Kam Lun Ellis Hon
  • Alexander K. C. Leung


Atopic eczema or dermatitis (AD) is a chronically relapsing dermatosis associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance, and impaired quality of life. AD affects 10–20% of school-aged children. The prevalence has increased two- to threefolds over the past three decades in industrialized countries, and there is evidence to suggest that this prevalence is increasing. AD is frustrating to both patients and caregivers and can impose considerable financial impact on the families. The pruritus and sleep disturbance can be intractable, and the disease has important physical and psychological implications. Avoidance of triggering factors, optimal skin care, and topical corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. There are two important dermatologic facets to its management, namely, preventive and therapeutic measures. Preventive measures refer to the frequent and proper application of skin moisturizers. When these preventive measures fail to control disease exacerbation, therapeutic measures such as topical/systemic corticosteroids, antibiotics, and immunomodulating agents may be required to control the skin inflammation. Proper moisturizer therapy can reduce the frequency of flares and the demand of topical corticosteroids or topical calcineurin inhibitors. Regular topical application of a moisturizer is the key in the management of patients with AD. Moisturizers can be in the form of creams, emollients, lotions, or ointments. A number of studies have been done to demonstrate how the efficacy of moisturizer therapy can be objectively measured and these studies will be reviewed.


Atopic Dermatitis Stratum Corneum Rosmarinic Acid Dermatology Life Quality Index Glycyrrhetinic Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Leung AK, Hon KL (2011) Atopic dermatitis: a review for the primary care physician. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., New York, pp 1–111Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Leung AKC, Barber KA (2003) Managing childhood atopic dermatitis. Adv Ther 20(3):129–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Leung AK, Hon KL, Robson WL (2007) Atopic dermatitis. Adv Pediatr 54:241–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Leung DY (1995) Atopic dermatitis: the skin as a window into the pathogenesis of chronic allergic diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol 96(3):302–318PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sehra S, Tuana FM, Holbreich M, Mousdicas N, Tepper RS, Chang CH et al (2008) Scratching the surface: towards understanding the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Crit Rev Immunol 28(1):15–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Williams HC (1992) Is the prevalence of atopic dermatitis increasing? Clin Exp Dermatol 17(6):385–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Leung DY, Boguniewicz M, Howell MD, Nomura I, Hamid QA (2004) New insights into atopic dermatitis. J Clin Invest 113(5):651–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grillo M, Gassner L, Marshman G, Dunn S, Hudson P (2006) Pediatric atopic eczema: the impact of an educational intervention. Pediatr Dermatol 23(5):428–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leung R, Wong G, Lau J, Ho A, Chan JK, Choy D et al (1997) Prevalence of asthma and allergy in Hong Kong schoolchildren: an ISAAC study. Eur Respir J 10(2):354–360PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wong GW, Hui DS, Chan HH, Fok TF, Leung R, Zhong NS et al (2001) Prevalence of respiratory and atopic disorders in Chinese schoolchildren. Clin Exp Allergy 31(8):1225–1231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Leung DY, Nicklas RA, Li JT, Bernstein IL, Blessing-Moore J, Boguniewicz M et al (2004) Disease management of atopic dermatitis: an updated practice parameter. Joint task force on practice parameters. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 93(3 Suppl 2):S1–S21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Simpson EL (2010) Atopic dermatitis: a review of topical treatment options. Curr Med Res Opin 26(3):633–640PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Abramovits W (2005) Atopic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 53(1 Suppl 1):S86–S93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Simpson EL, Hanifin JM (2005) Atopic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 53(1):115–128PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Roos TC, Geuer S, Roos S, Brost H (2004) Recent advances in treatment strategies for atopic dermatitis. Drugs 64(23):2639–2666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hon KL (2004) Skin diseases in Chinese children at a Pediatric Dermatology Center. Pediatr Dermatol 21(2):109–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hon KL, Lam MC, Leung TF, Kam WY, Li MC, Ip M et al (2005) Clinical features associated with nasal Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in Chinese children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. Ann Acad Med Singapore 34(10):602–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chamlin SL, Frieden IJ, Williams ML, Chren MM (2004) Effects of atopic dermatitis on young American children and their families. Pediatrics 114(3):607–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hon KL, Leung TF, Wong K, Chow C, Chuh A, Ng P et al (2008) Does age or gender influence quality of life in children with atopic dermatitis? Clin Exp Dermatol 33(6):705–709PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ben Gashir MA, Seed PT, Hay RJ (2002) Are quality of family life and disease severity related in childhood atopic dermatitis? J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 16(5):455–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ben Gashir MA (2003) Relationship between quality of life and disease severity in atopic dermatitis/eczema syndrome during childhood. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 3(5):369–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ben Gashir MA, Seed PT, Hay RJ (2004) Quality of life and disease severity are correlated in children with atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 150(2):284–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rudikoff D, Lebwohl M (1998) Atopic dermatitis. Lancet 351(9117):1715–1721PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kristal L, Klein PA (2000) Atopic dermatitis in infants and children. An update. Pediatr Clin North Am 47(4):877–895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eigenmann PA (2001) Clinical features and diagnostic criteria of atopic dermatitis in relation to age. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 12(Suppl 14):69–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hanifin JMRG (1980) Diagnostic features of atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 2:44–47Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Leung DY, Jain N, Leo HL (2003) New concepts in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis. Curr Opin Immunol 15(6):634–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Leung DY, Bieber T (2003) Atopic dermatitis. Lancet 361(9352):151–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hon K, Leung TF (2010) Seromarkers in childhood atopic dermatitis. Expert Rev Dermatol 5(3):299–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hanifin JM (1982) Atopic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 6(1):1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Leung TF, Ma KC, Hon KL, Lam CWK et al (2003) Serum concentration of macrophage-derived chemokine may be a useful inflammatory marker for assessing severity of atopic dermatitis in infants and young children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 14(4):296–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Marenholz I, Nickel R, Ruschendorf F, Schulz F, Esparza-Gordillo J, Kerscher T et al (2006) Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations predispose to phenotypes involved in the atopic march. J Allergy Clin Immunol 118(4):866–871PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Palmer CN, Irvine AD, Terron-Kwiatkowski A, Zhao Y, Liao H, Lee SP et al (2006) Common loss-of-function variants of the epidermal barrier protein filaggrin are a major predisposing factor for atopic dermatitis. Nat Genet 38(4):441–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sandilands A, Terron-Kwiatkowski A, Hull PR, O’Regan GM, Clayton TH, Watson RM et al (2007) Comprehensive analysis of the gene encoding filaggrin uncovers prevalent and rare mutations in ichthyosis vulgaris and atopic eczema. Nat Genet 39(5):650–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ching G, Hon KL (2009) Filaggrin null mutations in childhood atopic dermatitis among the Chinese. Int J Immunogenet 36(4):251–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Enomoto H, Hirata K, Otsuka K, Kawai T, Takahashi T, Hirota T et al (2008) Filaggrin null mutations are associated with atopic dermatitis and elevated levels of IgE in the Japanese population: a family and case-control study. J Hum Genet 53(7):615–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Candi E, Schmidt R, Melino G (2005) The cornified envelope: a model of cell death in the skin [Review, 142 refs]. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6(4):328–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Krakowski AC, Eichenfield LF, Dohil MA (2008) Management of atopic dermatitis in the pediatric population. Pediatrics 122(4):812–824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hara J, Higuchi K, Okamoto R, Kawashima M, Imokawa G (2000) High-expression of sphingomyelin deacylase is an important determinant of ceramide deficiency leading to barrier disruption in atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 115(3):406–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ong PY, Ohtake T, Brandt C, Strickland I, Boguniewicz M, Ganz T et al (2002) Endogenous antimicrobial peptides and skin infections in atopic dermatitis [see comment]. N Engl J Med 347(15):1151–1160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Charman C, Williams H (2000) Outcome measures of disease severity in atopic eczema. Arch Dermatol 136(6):763–769PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    (1993) Severity scoring of atopic dermatitis: the SCORAD index. Consensus Report of the European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis. Dermatology 186(1):23–31Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kunz B, Oranje AP, Labreze L, Stalder JF, Ring J, Taieb A (1997) Clinical validation and guidelines for the SCORAD index: consensus report of the European Task Force on Atopic Dermatitis. Dermatology 195(1):10–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Emerson RM, Charman CR, Williams HC (2000) The Nottingham Eczema Severity Score: preliminary refinement of the Rajka and Langeland grading. Br J Dermatol 142(2):288–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hon KL, Ma KC, Wong E, Leung TF, Wong Y, Fok TF et al (2003) Validation of a self-administered questionnaire in Chinese in the assessment of eczema severity. Pediatr Dermatol 20(6):465–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sturgill S (2004) Atopic dermatitis update. Curr Opin Pediatr 16(4):396–401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rajka G, Langeland T (1989) Grading of the severity of atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol 144:13–14Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hanifin JM, Thurston M, Omoto M, Cherill R, Tofte SJ, Graeber M (2001) The eczema area and severity index (EASI): assessment of reliability in atopic dermatitis. EASI Evaluator Group. Exp Dermatol 10(1):11–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Benjamin K et al (2004) The development of an objective method for measuring scratch in children with atopic dermatitis suitable for clinical use. J Am Acad Dermatol 50(1):33–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hon KL, Lam MC, Leung TF, Kam WY, Lee KC, Li MC et al (2006) Nocturnal wrist movements are correlated with objective clinical scores and plasma chemokine levels in children with atopic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol 154(4):629–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hon KL, Leung TF, Ma K, Li A, Wong Y, Yin JA et al (2005) Resting energy expenditure, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production during sleep in children with atopic dermatitis. J Dermatolog Treat 16(1):22–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pinnagoda J, Tupker RA, Agner T, Serup J (1990) Guidelines for transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurement. A report from the Standardization Group of the European Society of Contact Dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis 22(3):164–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Serup J (1992) Characterization of contact dermatitis and atopy using bioengineering techniques. A survey. Acta Derm Venereol 177:14–25Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kim DW, Park JY, Na GY, Lee SJ, Lee WJ (2006) Correlation of clinical features and skin barrier function in adolescent and adult patients with atopic dermatitis. Int J Dermatol 45(6):698–701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Proksch E, Nissen HP, Bremgartner M, Urquhart C (2005) Bathing in a magnesium-rich Dead Sea salt solution improves skin barrier function, enhances skin hydration, and reduces inflammation in atopic dry skin. Int J Dermatol 44(2):151–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    O’goshi K, Serup J (2005) Inter-instrumental variation of skin capacitance measured with the Corneometer. Skin Res Technol 11(2):107–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Seidenari S, Giusti G (1995) Objective assessment of the skin of children affected by atopic dermatitis: a study of pH, capacitance and TEWL in eczematous and clinically uninvolved skin. Acta Derm Venereol 75(6):429–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Choi SJ, Song MG, Sung WT, Lee DY, Lee JH, Lee ES et al (2003) Comparison of transepidermal water loss, capacitance and pH values in the skin between intrinsic and extrinsic atopic dermatitis patients. J Korean Med Sci 18(1):93–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Son SW, Park SY, Ha SH, Park GM, Kim MG, Moon JS et al (2005) Objective evaluation for severity of atopic dermatitis by morphologic study of skin surface contours. Skin Res Technol 11(4):272–280PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Lodén M, Olsson H, Axell T, Linde YW (1992) Friction, capacitance and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in dry atopic and normal skin. Br J Dermatol 126(2):137–141PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Sakurai K, Sugiura H, Matsumoto M, Uehara M (2002) Occurrence of patchy parakeratosis in normal-appearing skin in patients with active atopic dermatitis and in patients with healed atopic dermatitis: a cause of impaired barrier function of the atopic skin. J Dermatol Sci 30(1):37–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Matsumoto M, Sugiura H, Uehara M (2000) Skin barrier function in patients with completely healed atopic dermatitis. J Dermatol Sci 23(3):178–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hon KL, Wong KY, Leung TF, Chow CM, Ng PC (2008) Comparison of skin hydration evaluation sites and correlations among skin hydration, transepidermal water loss, SCORAD index, Nottingham eczema severity score, and quality of life in patients with atopic dermatitis. Am J Clin Dermatol 9(1):45–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hon KL, Kam WY, Lam A et al (2006) CDLQI, SCORAD and NESS: are they correlated? Qual Life Res 15:1551–1558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hon KL, Ching GK, Leung TF, Choi CY, Lee KK, Ng PC (2010) Estimating emollient usage in patients with eczema. Clin Exp Dermatol 35(1):22–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Holm E, Wulf HC, Stegmann H, Jemec GBE (2006) Life quality assessment among patients with atopic eczema. Br J Dermatol 154(4):719–725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Baumer JH (2008) Atopic eczema in children, NICE. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract 93(3):93–97Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lewis-Jones MS, Finlay AY (1995) The Children’s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI): initial validation and practical use. Br J Dermatol 132(6):942–949PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Chamlin SL, Cella D, Frieden IJ, Williams ML, Mancini AJ, Lai JS et al (2005) Development of the Childhood Atopic Dermatitis Impact Scale: initial validation of a quality-of-life measure for young children with atopic dermatitis and their families. J Invest Dermatol 125(6):1106–1111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    McKenna SP, Doward LC (2008) Quality of life of children with atopic dermatitis and their families. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 8(3):228–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    McKenna SP, Whalley D, Dewar AL, Erdman RA, Kohlmann T, Niero M et al (2005) International development of the Parents’ Index of Quality of Life in Atopic Dermatitis (PIQoL-AD). Qual Life Res 14(1):231–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Meads DM, McKenna SP, Kahler K (2005) The quality of life of parents of children with atopic dermatitis: interpretation of PIQoL-AD scores. Qual Life Res 14(10):2235–2245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Drake L, Prendergast M, Maher R, Breneman D, Korman N, Satoi Y et al (2001) The impact of tacrolimus ointment on health-related quality of life of adult and pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 44(1 Suppl):S65–S72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Whalley D, Huels J, McKenna SP, van Assche D (2002) The benefit of pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981) on parents’ quality of life in the treatment of pediatric atopic dermatitis. Pediatrics 110(6):1133–1136PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hon KL, Leung T, Wong Y, Li A, Fok T et al (2005) A survey of bathing and showering practices in children with atopic eczema. Clin Exp Dermatol 30(4):351–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Chamlin SL, Kao J, Frieden IJ, Sheu MY, Fowler AJ, Fluhr JW et al (2002) Ceramide-dominant barrier repair lipids alleviate childhood atopic dermatitis: changes in barrier function provide a sensitive indicator of disease activity. J Am Acad Dermatol 47(2):198–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Maintz L, Novak N (2007) Getting more and more complex: the pathophysiology of atopic eczema. Eur J Dermatol 17(4):267–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Dohil MA, Eichenfield LF (2005) A treatment approach for atopic dermatitis. Pediatr Ann 34(3):201–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Lancaster W (2009) Atopic eczema in infants and children. Community Pract 82(7):36–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Tarr A, Iheanacho I (2009) Should we use bath emollients for atopic eczema? BMJ 339:b4273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Cork M (1998) Complete emollient therapy. The National Association of Fundholding Practices Official Yearbook, London, pp 159–168Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Cork MJ, Danby S (2009) Skin barrier breakdown: a renaissance in emollient therapy. Br J Nurs 18(14):872–877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Cork MJ, Danby SG, Vasilopoulos Y, Hadgraft J, Lane ME, Moustafa M et al (2009) Epidermal barrier dysfunction in atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol 129(8):1892–1908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bissonnette R, Maari C, Provost N, Bolduc C, Nigen S, Rougier A et al (2010) A double-blind study of tolerance and efficacy of a new urea-containing moisturizer in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Cosmet Dermatol 9(1):16–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Miller DW, Koch SB, Yentzer BA, Clark AR, O’Neill JR, Fountain J et al (2011) An over-the-counter moisturizer is as clinically effective as, and more cost-effective than, prescription barrier creams in the treatment of children with mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis: a randomized, controlled trial. J Drugs Dermatol 10(5):531–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chamlin SL, Frieden IJ, Fowler A, Williams M, Kao J, Sheu M et al (2001) Ceramide-dominant, barrier-repair lipids improve childhood atopic dermatitis. Arch Dermatol 137(8):1110–1112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lodén M, Wirén K, Smerud K, Meland N, Honnas H, Mork G et al (2010) Treatment with a barrier-strengthening moisturizer prevents relapse of hand-eczema. An open, randomized, prospective, parallel group study. Acta Derm Venereol 90(6):602–606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Lodén M, Wirén K, Smerud KT, Meland N, Hønnås H, Mørk G et al (2011) The effect of a corticosteroid cream and a barrier-strengthening moisturizer in hand eczema. A double-blind, randomized, prospective, parallel group clinical trial. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-3083.2011.04128.x
  89. 89.
    Frankel A, Sohn A, Patel RV, Lebwohl M (2011) Bilateral comparison study of pimecrolimus cream 1% and a ceramide-hyaluronic Acid emollient foam in the treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis. J Drugs Dermatol 10(6):666–672PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Grimalt R, Mengeaud V, Cambazard F, Study Investigators’ Group (2007) The steroid-sparing effect of an emollient therapy in infants with atopic dermatitis: a randomized controlled study. Dermatology 214(1):61–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lee J, Jung E, Koh J, Kim YS, Park D (2008) Effect of rosmarinic acid on atopic dermatitis. J Dermatol 35(12):768–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Draelos ZD (2008) The effect of ceramide-containing skin care products on eczema resolution duration. Cutis 81(1):87–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Madaan A (2008) Epiceram for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Drugs Today 44(10):751–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Boguniewicz M, Zeichner JA, Eichenfield LF, Hebert AA, Jarratt M, Lucky AW et al (2008) MAS063DP is effective monotherapy for mild to moderate atopic dermatitis in infants and children: a multicenter, randomized, vehicle-controlled study. J Pediatr 152(6):854–859PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Patrizi A, Capitanio B, Neri I, Giacomini F, Sinagra JL, Raone B et al (2008) A double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled clinical study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of MAS063DP (ATOPICLAIR) in the management of atopic dermatitis in paediatric patients. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 19(7):619–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Park KY, Kim DH, Jeong MS, Li K, Seo SJ (2010) Changes of antimicrobial peptides and transepidermal water loss after topical application of tacrolimus and ceramide-dominant emollient in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Korean Med Sci 25(5):766–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hon KL, Wang SS, Lau Z, Lee HC, Lee KK, Leung TF et al (2011) Pseudoceramide for childhood eczema: does it work? Hong Kong Med J 17(2):132–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Tsang M, Guy RH (2010) Effect of aqueous cream BP on human stratum corneum in vivo. Br J Dermatol 163(5):954–958PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Mohammed D, Matts PJ, Hadgraft J, Lane ME (2011) Influence of aqueous cream BP on corneocyte size, maturity, skin protease activity, protein content and transepidermal water loss. Br J Dermatol 164(6):1304–1310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hoare C, Li Wan PA, Williams H (2000) Systematic review of treatments for atopic eczema. Health Technol Assess (Winchester, England) 4(37):1–191Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Raimer SS (2000) Managing pediatric atopic dermatitis. Clin Pediatr 39(1):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Tofte SJ, Hanifin JM (2001) Current management and therapy of atopic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 44(1 (Part 2)):S13–S16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Fischer G (1996) Compliance problems in paediatric atopic eczema. Australas J Dermatol 37(Suppl 1):S10–S13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsThe Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales HospitalShatinHong Kong
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsThe University of Calgary, Alberta Children’s HospitalCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations