Methods to Isolate and Identify New Plant Signaling Peptides

Chapter
Part of the Signaling and Communication in Plants book series (SIGCOMM, volume 16)

Abstract

Peptides play a key role in plant development and intercellular communication. A variety of novel peptides and peptidic compounds have been isolated over the last few decades. This chapter examines the various methods used to isolate and identify new peptides and peptidic compounds from plants, and provides an overview of these methods. The principles involved in extraction and methods commonly used for separation, isolation, and structural elucidation are summarized. Methods discussed include high-performance liquid chromatography in both normal and reversed phases, ion-exchange chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography, affinity chromatography, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, multidimensional liquid chromatography, and various physical identification techniques such as mass spectrometry for determining molecular structures. The application of such techniques to identification of novel plant peptides is stressed.

Keywords

Peptide Mixture Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography Peptide Molecule Peptide Separation Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Albuquerque CP, Smolka MB, Payne SH, Bafna V, Eng J, Zhou H (2008) A multidimensional chromatography technology for in-depth phosiphoproteome analysis. Mol Cell Proteomics 7(7):1389–1396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alomirah HF, Alli I, Konishi Y (2000) Applications of mass spectrometry to food proteins and peptides. J Chromatogr A 893(1):1–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alpert AJ (1990) Hydrophilic-interaction chromatography for the separation of peptides, nucleic acids and other polar compounds. J Chromatogr 499:177–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Azad MA, Sawa Y, Ishikawa T, Shibata H (2006) Purification and characterization of protein phosphatase 2A from petals of the tulip Tulipa gesnerina. J Biochem Mol Biol 39:671–676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barth HG, Boyes BE, Jackson C (1994) Size exclusion chromatography. Anal Chem 66:595R–620RPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergey DR, Howe GA, Ryan CA (1996) Polypeptide signaling for plant defensive genes exhibits analogies to defense signaling in animals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:12053–12058PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bhowmick R, Kumari NK, Jagannadham MV, Kayastha AM (2008) Purification and characterization of a novel protease from the latex of Pedilanthus tithymaloids. Protein Pept Lett 15:1009–1016PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bohlmann H, Apel K (1991) Thionins. Annu Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 42:227–240Google Scholar
  9. Boutin JA, Ernould AP, Ferry G, Genton A, Alpert AJ (1992) Use of hydrophilic interaction chromatography for the study of tyrosine protein kinase specificity. J Chromatogr 583:137–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Carpentier SC, Witters E, Laukens K, Deckers P, Swennen R, Panis B (2005) Preparation of protein extracts from recalcitrant plant tissues: an evaluation of different methods for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis. Proteomics 5:2497–2507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Chan KC, Lucas DA, Hise D, Schaefer CF, Xiao Z, Janini GM, Buetow KH, Issaq HJ, Veenstra TD, Conrads TP (2004) Analysis of the human serum proteome. Clin Proteomics 1:101–225Google Scholar
  12. Chanana V, Kaur KJ, Salunke DM (2004) Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic characterization of a novel seed protein from Vigna unguiculata. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 60:2100–2103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen ZK, Fan CX, Ye YH, Yang L, Jiang Q, Xing QY (1998) Isolation and characterization of a group of oligopeptides related to oxidized glutathione from the root of Panax ginseng. J Pept Res 52:137–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cheng Y, Chen J, Xiong YL (2010) Chromatographic separation and tandem MS identification of active peptides in potato protein hydrolysate that inhibit autoxidation of soybean oil-in-water emulsions. J Agric Food Chem 58:8825–8832PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Claeson P, Goransson U, Johansson S, Luijendijk T, Bohlin L (1998) Fractionation protocol for the isolation of polypeptides from plant biomass. J Nat Prod 61:77–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cuatrecasas P, Wilchek M, Anfinsen CB (1968) Selective enzyme purification by affinity chromatography. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 61:636–643PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Das S, Mishra B, Gill K, Ashraf MS, Singh AK, Sinha M, Sharma S, Xess I, Dalal K, Singh TP, Dey S (2011) Isolation and characterization of novel protein with anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory properties from Aloe vera leaf gel. Int J Biol Macromol 48:38–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Desimone M, Kruger M, Wessel T, Wehofsky M, Hoffmann R, Wagner E (2000) Purification and characterization of an aminopeptidase from the chloroplast stroma of barley leaves by chromatographic and electrophoretic methods. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl 737:285–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Ding H, Zhang A, Wang J, Lu R, Zhang H, Zhang J, Jiang M (2009) Identity of an ABA-activated 46 kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase from Zea mays leaves: partial purification, identification and characterization. Planta 230:239–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dugo P, Cacciola F, Kumm T, Dugo G, Mondello L (2008) Comprehensive multidimensional liquid chromatography: theory and applications. J Chromatogr A 1184:353–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dunkel A, Koster J, Hofmann T (2007) Molecular and sensory characterization of gamma-glutamyl peptides as key contributors to the kokumi taste of edible beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). J Agric Food Chem 55:6712–6719PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Evans CR, Jorgenson JW (2004) Multidimensional LC-LC and LC-CE for high-resolution separations of biological molecules. Anal Bioanal Chem 378:1952–1961PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Fausnaugh JL, Regnier FE (1986) Solute and mobile phase contributions to retention in hydrophobic interaction chromatography of proteins. J Chromatogr 359:131–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Fausnaugh JL, Kennedy LA, Regnier FE (1984) Comparison of hydrophobic-interaction and reversed-phase chromatography of proteins. J Chromatogr 317:141–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Frei RW, Michel L, Santi W (1976) Post-column fluorescence derivatization of peptides. Problems and potential in high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 126:665–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Frolov A, Hoffmann R (2008) Analysis of amadori peptides enriched by boronic acid affinity chromatography. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1126:253–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Garcia-Olmedo F, Molina A, Alamillo JM, Rodriguez-Palenzuela P (1998) Plant defense peptides. Biopolymers 47:479–491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Germain H, Chevalier E, Matton D (2006) Plant bioactive peptides: an expanding class of signaling molecules. Can J Bot 84:1–19Google Scholar
  29. Gilar M, Olivova P, Daly AE, Gebler JC (2005) Orthogonality of separation in two-dimensional liquid chromatography. Anal Chem 77(19):6426–6434PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Gran L (1973) Oxytocic principles of Oldenlandia affinis. Lloydia 36(2):174–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Granier F (1988) Extraction of plant proteins for two-dimensional electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 9:712–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gruber KA, Stein S, Brink L, Radhakrishnan A, Udenfriend S (1976) Fluorometric assay of vasopressin and oxytocin: a general approach to the assay of peptides in tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73:1314–1318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gustafson K, Sowder R II, Henderson LE, Parsons IC, Kashman Y, Cardellina JH II, McMahon JB, Buckheit RW Jr, Pannell LK, Boyd MR (1994) Circulins A and B: novel HIV-inhibitory macrocyclic peptides from the tropical tree Chassalia parvifolia. J Am Chem Soc 116:9337–9338Google Scholar
  34. Gygi SP, Rist B, Gerber SA, Turecek F, Gelb MH, Aebersold R (1999) Quantitative analysis of complex protein mixtures using isotope-coded affinity tags. Nat Biotechnol 17:994–999PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hanash S (2003) Disease proteomics. Nature 422:226–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hancock WS, Bishop CA, Prestidge RL, Harding DR, Hearn MT (1978) Reversed-phase, high-pressure liquid chromatography of peptides and proteins with ion-pairing reagents. Science 200:1168–1170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Henry RA (2002) Highly selective zirconia-based phases for HPLC applications. Am Lab 34:18–25Google Scholar
  38. Huang B, Ng TB, Fong WP, Wan CC, Yeung HW (1999) Isolation of a trypsin inhibitor with deletion of N-terminal pentapeptide from the seeds of Momordica cochinchinensis, the Chinese drug mubiezhi. Int J Biochem Cell Biol 31:707–715PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hurkman WJ, Tanaka CK (1986) Solubilization of plant membrane proteins for analysis by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Plant Physiol 81:802–806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Issaq HJ, Chan KC, Janini GM, Conrads TP, Veenstra TD (2005) Multidimensional separation of peptides for effective proteomic analysis. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 817:35–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Issaq HJ, Chan KC, Blonder J, Ye X, Veenstra TD (2009) Separation, detection and quantitation of peptides by liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography. J Chromatogr A 1216:1825–1837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Jacobs JM, Mottaz HM, Yu LR, Anderson DJ, Moore RJ, Chen WN, Auberry KJ, Strittmatter EF, Monroe ME, Thrall BD, Camp DG II, Smith RD (2004) Multidimensional proteome analysis of human mammary epithelial cells. J Proteome Res 3:68–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Janini GM, Chan KC, Conrads TP, Issaq HJ, Veenstra TD (2004) Two-dimensional liquid chromatography-capillary zone electrophoresis-sheathless electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry: evaluation for peptide analysis and protein identification. Electrophoresis 25:1973–1980PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Karas M, Hillenkamp F (1988) Laser desorption ionization of proteins with molecular masses exceeding 10,000 daltons. Anal Chem 60:2299–2301PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Kende H, Zeevaart J (1997) The five “classical” plant hormones. Plant Cell 9:1197–1210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Kim MH, Park SC, Kim JY, Lee SY, Lim HT, Cheong H, Hahm KS, Park Y (2006) Purification and characterization of a heat-stable serine protease inhibitor from the tubers of new potato variety “Golden Valley”. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 346:681–686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kim JY, Park SC, Hwang I, Cheong H, Nah JW, Hahm KS, Park Y (2009) Protease inhibitors from plants with antimicrobial activity. Int J Mol Sci 10:2860–2872PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kolodzeiskaia MV (1983) Affinity chromatography of aminopeptidases. Ukr Biokhim Zh 55:577–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Lacroix M, Poinsot V, Fournier C, Couderc F (2005) Laser-induced fluorescence detection schemes for the analysis of proteins and peptides using capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis 26:2608–2621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Lee JH, Lee DH, Yu HE, Kim JH, Lee JS (2006) Isolation and characterization of a novel glutathione S-transferase-activating peptide from the oriental medicinal plant Phellodendron amurense. Peptides 27:2069–2074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Li X, Stoll DR, Carr PW (2009) Equation for peak capacity estimation in two-dimensional liquid chromatography. Anal Chem 81:845–850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Lim KB, Kassel DB (2006) Phosphopeptides enrichment using on-line two-dimensional strong cation exchange followed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem 354:213–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lin P, Xia L, Ng TB (2007) First isolation of an antifungal lipid transfer peptide from seeds of a Brassica species. Peptides 28:1514–1519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Lin P, Wong JH, Xia L, Ng TB (2009) Campesin, a thermostable antifungal peptide with highly potent antipathogenic activities. J Biosci Bioeng 108:259–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Lindsey K, Casson S, Chilley P (2002) Peptides: new signaling molecules in plants. Trends Plant Sci 7:78–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Link AJ (2002) Multidimensional peptide separations in proteomics. Trends Biotechnol 20(Suppl):S8–S13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Liu H, Lin D, Yates JR III (2002) Multidimensional separations for protein/peptide analysis in the post-genomic era. Biotechniques 32:898, 900, 902 passimPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Ma DZ, Wang HX, Ng TB (2009) A peptide with potent antifungal and antiproliferative activities from Nepalese large red beans. Peptides 30:2089–2094PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Mann M, Hendrickson RC, Pandey A (2001) Analysis of proteins and proteomes by mass spectrometry. Annu Rev Biochem 70:437–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Manzano C, Abraham Z, Lopez-Torrejon G, Del Pozo JC (2008) Identification of ubiquitinated proteins in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol 68:145–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Marquez-Escalante JA, Figueroa-Soto CG, Valenzuela-Soto EM (2006) Isolation and partial characterization of trehalose 6-phosphate synthase aggregates from Selaginella lepidophylla plants. Biochimie 88:1505–1510PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Marx J (1996) Plants, like animals, may make use of peptide signals. Science 273:1338–1339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Matsubayashi Y, Sakagami Y (1996) Phytosulfokine, sulfated peptides that induce the proliferation of single mesophyll cells of Asparagus officinalis L. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:7623–7627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. McDonald WH, Ohi R, Miyamoto DT, Mitchison TJ, Yates JR (2002) Comparison of three directly coupled HPLC MS/MS strategies for identification of proteins from complex mixtures: single-dimension LC-MS/MS, 2-phase MudPIT, and 3-phase MudPIT. Int J Mass Spectrom 219:245–251Google Scholar
  65. Melander W, Horvath C (1977) Salt effect on hydrophobic interactions in precipitation and chromatography of proteins: an interpretation of the lyotropic series. Arch Biochem Biophys 183:200–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Molnar I, Horvath C (1977) Separation of amino acids and peptides on non-polar stationary phases by high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr 142:623–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Moravcova D, Kahle V, Rehulkova H, Chmelik J, Rehulka P (2009) Short monolithic columns for purification and fractionation of peptide samples for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis in proteomics. J Chromatogr A 1216:3629–3636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Motoyama A, Xu T, Ruse CI, Wohlschlegel JA, Yates JR III (2007) Anion and cation mixed-bed ion exchange for enhanced multidimensional separations of peptides and phosphopeptides. Anal Chem 79:3623–3634PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Neverova I, Van Eyk JE (2005) Role of chromatographic techniques in proteomic analysis. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 815:51–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Ooi LS, Tian L, Su M, Ho WS, Sun SS, Chung HY, Wong HN, Ooi VE (2008) Isolation, characterization, molecular cloning and modeling of a new lipid transfer protein with antiviral and antiproliferative activities from Narcissus tazetta. Peptides 29:2101–2109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Opiteck GJ, Ramirez SM, Jorgenson JW, Moseley MA III (1998) Comprehensive two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography for the isolation of overexpressed proteins and proteome mapping. Anal Biochem 258:349–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Oscarsson S, Karsnas P (1998) Salt-promoted adsorption of proteins onto amphiphilic agarose-based adsorbents. II. Effects of salt and salt concentration. J Chromatogr A 803:83–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Ostin A, Bergstrom T, Fredriksson SA, Nilsson C (2007) Solvent-assisted trypsin digestion of ricin for forensic identification by LC-ESI MS/MS. Anal Chem 79:6271–6278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Peckham GD, Bugos RC, Su WW (2006) Purification of GFP fusion proteins from transgenic plant cell cultures. Protein Expr Purif 49:183–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Pelegrini PB, Farias LR, Saude AC, Costa FT, Bloch C Jr, Silva LP, Oliveira AS, Gomes CE, Sales MP, Franco OL (2009) A novel antimicrobial peptide from Crotalaria pallida seeds with activity against human and phytopathogens. Curr Microbiol 59:400–404PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Porath J (1986) Salt-promoted adsorption: recent developments. J Chromatogr 376:331–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Porath J, Sundberg L, Fornstedt N, Olsson I (1973) Salting-out in amphiphilic gels as a new approach to hydrophobic adsorption. Nature 245:465–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Raftery MJ (2008) Enrichment by organomercurial agarose and identification of cys-containing peptides from yeast cell lysates. Anal Chem 80:3334–3341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Risley DS, Strege MA (2000) Chiral separations of polar compounds by hydrophilic interaction chromatography with evaporative light scattering detection. Anal Chem 72:1736–1739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Rivillas-Acevedo LA, Soriano-Garcia M (2007) Isolation and biochemical characterization of an antifungal peptide from Amaranthus hypochondriacus seeds. J Agric Food Chem 55:10156–10161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Rudenskaia GN (1994) Affinity chromatography of proteinases. Bioorg Khim 20:213–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Sammer UF, Volksch B, Mollmann U, Schmidtke M, Spiteller P, Spiteller M, Spiteller D (2009) 2-amino-3-(oxirane-2,3-dicarboxamido)-propanoyl-valine, an effective peptide antibiotic from the epiphyte Pantoea agglomerans 48b/90. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:7710–7717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Sandra K, Moshir M, D’Hondt F, Tuytten R, Verleysen K, Kas K, Francois I, Sandra P (2009) Highly efficient peptide separations in proteomics. Part 2: bi- and multidimensional liquid-based separation techniques. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 877:1019–1039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Santa T, Fukushima T, Ichibangase T, Imai K (2008) Recent progress in the development of derivatization reagents having a benzofurazan structure. Biomed Chromatogr 22:343–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Santoni V, Bellini C, Caboche M (1994) Use of two-dimensional protein-pattern analysis for the characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants. Planta 192:557–566Google Scholar
  86. Shevchenko A, Jensen ON, Podtelejnikov AV, Sagliocco F, Wilm M, Vorm O, Mortensen P, Boucherie H, Mann M (1996) Linking genome and proteome by mass spectrometry: large-scale identification of yeast proteins from two dimensional gels. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:14440–14445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Silva-Sanchez C, de la Rosa AP, Leon-Galvan MF, de Lumen BO, de Leon-Rodriguez A, de Mejia EG (2008) Bioactive peptides in amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seed. J Agric Food Chem 56:1233–1240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Snyder LR, Dolan JW, Gant JR (1979) Gradient elution in high-performance liquid chromatography: I. Theoretical basis for reversed-phase systems. J Chromatogr A 165:3–30Google Scholar
  89. Stasyk T, Huber LA (2004) Zooming in: fractionation strategies in proteomics. Proteomics 4:3704–3716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Strege MA, Stevenson S, Lawrence SM (2000) Mixed-mode anion-cation exchange/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry as an alternative to reversed phase for small molecule drug discovery. Anal Chem 72:4629–4633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Sykora C, Hoffmann R, Hoffmann P (2007) Enrichment of multiphosphorylated peptides by immobilized metal affinity chromatography using Ga(III)- and Fe(III)-complexes. Protein Pept Lett 14:489–496PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Tang J, Gao M, Deng C, Zhang X (2008) Recent development of multi-dimensional chromatography strategies in proteome research. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 866:123–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Tolstikov VV, Fiehn O (2002) Analysis of highly polar compounds of plant origin: combination of hydrophilic interaction chromatography and electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry. Anal Biochem 301:298–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Tsugita A, Kamo M (1999) 2-D electrophoresis of plant proteins. Methods Mol Biol 112:95–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Twerenbold D, Gerber D, Gritti D, Gonin Y, Netuschill A, Rossel F, Schenker D, Vuilleumier JL (2001) Single molecule detector for mass spectrometry with mass independent detection efficiency. Proteomics 1:66–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Vacek J, Klejdus B, Petrlova J, Lojkova L, Kuban V (2006) A hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometry for the determination of glutathione in plant somatic embryos. Analyst 131:1167–1174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. van Oss CJ, Good RJ, Chaudhury MK (1986) Nature of the antigen-antibody interaction. Primary and secondary bonds: optimal conditions for association and dissociation. J Chromatogr 376:111–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Van Sluyter SC, Marangon M, Stranks SD, Neilson KA, Hayasaka Y, Haynes PA, Menz RI, Waters EJ (2009) Two-step purification of pathogenesis-related proteins from grape juice and crystallization of thaumatin-like proteins. J Agric Food Chem 57:11376–11382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Wagner K, Miliotis T, Marko-Varga G, Bischoff R, Unger KK (2002) An automated on-line multidimensional HPLC system for protein and peptide mapping with integrated sample preparation. Anal Chem 74:809–820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Walcher W, Timperio AM, Zolla L, Huber CG (2003) Characterization of a variant of the spinach PSII type I light-harvesting protein using kinetically controlled digestion and RP-HPLC-ESI-MS. Anal Chem 75:6775–6780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Wang HX, Ng TB (2005) An antifungal peptide from the coconut. Peptides 26:2392–2396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Wang SZ, Ding K, Lin SQ, Lin ZB (2007) Isolation, purification and structural analysis of GL-PP-3A, an active polysaccharide peptide from Ganoderma lucidum. Yao Xue Xue Bao 42:1058–1061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Wang S, Rao P, Ye X (2009) Isolation and biochemical characterization of a novel leguminous defense peptide with antifungal and antiproliferative potency. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 82:79–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Washburn MP, Wolters D, Yates JR III (2001) Large-scale analysis of the yeast proteome by multidimensional protein identification technology. Nat Biotechnol 19:242–247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Washburn MP, Ulaszek R, Deciu C, Schieltz DM, Yates JR III (2002) Analysis of quantitative proteomic data generated via multidimensional protein identification technology. Anal Chem 74:1650–1657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Witherup KM, Bogusky MJ, Anderson PS, Ramjit H, Ransom RW, Wood T, Sardana M (1994) Cyclopsychotride A, a biologically active, 31-residue cyclic peptide isolated from Psychotria longipes. J Nat Prod 57:1619–1625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Wolters DA, Washburn MP, Yates JR III (2001) An automated multidimensional protein identification technology for shotgun proteomics. Anal Chem 73(23):5683–5690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Xiang B, Du GH, Wang XC, Zhang SX, Qin XY, Kong JQ, Cheng KD, Li YJ, Wang W (2010) Elucidating the structure of two cyclotides of Viola tianshanica maxim by MALDI TOF/TOF MS analysis. Yao Xue Xue Bao 45:1402–1409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Yoshida T (1997) Peptide separation in normal phase liquid chromatography. Anal Chem 69:3038–3043PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Yu LR, Zhu Z, Chan KC, Issaq HJ, Dimitrov DS, Veenstra TD (2007) Improved titanium dioxide enrichment of phosphopeptides from HeLa cells and high confident phosphopeptide identification by cross-validation of MS/MS and MS/MS/MS spectra. J Proteome Res 6:4150–4162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Zhang X, Fang A, Riley CP, Wang M, Regnier FE, Buck C (2010) Multi-dimensional liquid chromatography in proteomics – a review. Anal Chim Acta 664:101–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Zhou M, Veenstra T (2008) Mass spectrometry: m/z 1983-2008. Biotechniques 44(667–668):670Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sunil Sagar
    • 1
  • Chris Gehring
    • 2
  • Kenneth P. Minneman
    • 1
  1. 1.Computational Biosciences Research CenterKing Abdullah University of Science and TechnologyThuwalSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Division of Chemical and Life Sciences and EngineeringKing Abdullah University of Science and TechnologyThuwalSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations