Integrated Product Design

  • Kit Yan Chan
  • C. K. Kwong
  • Tharam S. Dillon
Conference paper
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 403)


The design of the late 1940’s automobile, the “Tucker 48”, is one of the most proclaimed cases of failure in the annals of American industry, after the World War II. With its Cyclops headlight which turned in tandem with the steering wheel, its rear-mounted engine, as well as its aerodynamic sheet metal, the Tucker 48 model, demonstrated to the public in 1947, produced much excitement. However, the Tucker 48 was never given to a factory for manufacturing. Only 51 cars were manufactured by hand, and they were all produced at enormous expense and manpower. Only the engineering characteristics such as car speed and efficiency of the engine were optimized or addressed by engineering personnel. Several important customer requirements such as low cost had not been considered. Existing equipment, commonly used car components and available engineering skills were inadequate for the large scale manufacture of the Tucker 48 with its relatively sophisticated design. It was hugely expensive to produce just one of them. These cars were so costly that they were beyond the means of the general public. Therefore, the development of Tucker 48 provides a valuable lesson that customer needs, marketing issue and engineering constraints need to be considered in product design stage.


Customer Satisfaction Customer Requirement Quality Function Deployment Design Attribute Fuzzy Regression 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kit Yan Chan
    • 1
  • C. K. Kwong
    • 2
  • Tharam S. Dillon
    • 1
  1. 1.Digital Ecosystems and BusinessCurtin University of TechnologyPerthAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Industrial and SystemsThe Hong Kong Polytechnic UniversityKowloonHong Kong SAR

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