Access Flow Monitoring Methods

  • Daniel Schneditz
  • Laura M. Rosales
  • Ahmad Taher Azar
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 404)


Low access blood flow has been recognized as the most important cause for access thrombosis and subsequent access failure so that some form of access flow surveillance is recommended in everyday practice. The classic technique to measure flow in physiology is based on indicator dilution as most flow rates are inaccessible to direct measurement. However, extracorporeal blood purification techniques have been designed for the controlled removal and/or delivery of solutes, all of which can be used as indicators to measure selected transport characteristics throughout the intra- and extracorporeal system. It is therefore not surprising that extracorporeal techniques are extremely well suited for access flow monitoring methods based on indicator dilution, also because these techniques can be integrated into the extracorporeal system as part of the purification process and as these procedures have the potential to be fully automated. In this chapter the physiological basis of indicator dilution is briefly summarized with regard to application in hemodialysis considering the limitations as well as the possibilities for integration and automation.


Cardiac output Systemic blood flow Access blood flow Access resistance Access stenosis Blood pressure Resistance Recirculation Access recirculation Forced recirculation Cardiopulmonary recirculation Indicator dilution Constant infusion techniques Bolus techniques Area under the curve Double recirculation techniques Gradient techniques Thermodilution Saline dilution On-line clearance Extracorporeal gradients Line switches 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Schneditz
    • 1
  • Laura M. Rosales
    • 2
  • Ahmad Taher Azar
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of PhysiologyMedical University of GrazGrazAustria
  2. 2.Renal Research InstituteNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Computer and Software Engineering Department Faculty of EngineeringMisr University for Science & Technology (MUST)6th of October CityEgypt

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