The “Facial Points of Interest”

  • Fabio Meneghini
  • Paolo Biondi


This chapter deals with references utilized for clinical facial analysis. I am convinced that judging the facial proportions and aesthetics utilizing internal and therefore “invisible” reference points, lines, and planes must be avoided. The inclination of the anterior cranial base, geometric center of the pituitary fossa, and other “invisible” references utilized in many cephalometric analyzes play a small role in the clinical decision-making process. So, more importance and emphasis is given to describing the points, lines, and regions of the external – visible – part of the face, together with the tissues that are under the skin and act as support structures.


Profile View Facial Point Pituitary Fossa Medial Canthus Anterior Cranial Base 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Brooks RA (2003) Robot. The future of flesh and machines. Penguin, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Macworth NH, Morandi AJ (1967) The gaze selects information details within pictures. Percept Psychophys 2:547–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Noton D, Stark L (1971) Eye movements and visual perception. Sci Am 224:34–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Stark LW, Privitera CM, Yang H, Azzariti M, Fai Ho Y, Balckmon T, Chernyak D (2001) Representation of human vision in the brain: how does human perception recognize images? J Electron Imaging 10:123–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yarbus AL (1967) Eye movements and vision. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fabio Meneghini
    • 1
  • Paolo Biondi
    • 2
  1. 1.Aesthetic and Maxillofacial SurgeryPadovaItaly
  2. 2.Maxillofacial SurgeryForlìItaly

Personalised recommendations