This chapter deals with references utilized for clinical facial analysis. I am convinced that judging the facial proportions and aesthetics utilizing internal and therefore “invisible” reference points, lines, and planes must be avoided. The inclination of the anterior cranial base, geometric center of the pituitary fossa, and other “invisible” references utilized in many cephalometric analyzes play a small role in the clinical decision-making process. So, more importance and emphasis is given to describing the points, lines, and regions of the external – visible – part of the face, together with the tissues that are under the skin and act as support structures.
Profile View Facial Point Pituitary Fossa Medial Canthus Anterior Cranial Base
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