Wind Turbines pp 167-231 | Cite as

Loads and Structural Stresses

  • Erich Hau


Wind turbines are subjected to very specific loads and stresses. At a first glance, the main problem appears to be the stability in heavy storms and hurricanes. However, the continuous alternating loads - even under normal wind conditions - are just as problematic. Alternating loads are more difficult to cope with than static loads because the material becomes ”fatigued”.


Wind Speed Wind Turbine Load Case Rotor Blade Structural Stress 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC): Wind Turbine Generator Systems, Part 1 Safety Requirements, IEC 61400-1, 2nd edn. (1999)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Deutsches Institut für Bautechnik (DIBt): Richtlinie für Windenergieanlagen: Einwirkungen und Standsicherheitsnachweise für Turm und Gründung, Berlin, vol. 8 (March 2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abbott, H., Von Doenhoff, A.E.: Theory of Wing Sections. Dover Publications Inc., New York (1958)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Burton, T., et al.: Wind Energy Handbook. Wiley, Chichester (2001)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schepers, J.G., Snel, H.: Investigation of dynamic inflow effects and implementation of an engineering method. ECN-Report ECN-C-94-107, Petten (1995)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schewe, G.: Untersuchung der aerodynamischen Kräfte, die auf stumpfe Profile bei großen Reynolds-Zahlen wirken. DFVLR Report 84-19 (1980)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Snyder, M.H.: Wakes Produced by a Single Element and Multiple Element Wind Turbine Towers. Wind Energy Conversion Devices. Von-Karman-Institut (1981)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Frost, W., Long, B.H., Turner, R.E.: Engineering Handbook on the Atmospheric Environ-mental Guidelines for Use in Wind Turbine Generator Development. NASA Technical Paper 1359 (1978) Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Garrad, A.D., Hassan, D.: Taking the Guesswork out of Wind Turbine Design. In: AWEA National Conference, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (1986)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Huß, G., Hau, E.: Lastfalldefinition für WKA-60. MAN-Report (1986)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    IEA Expert Group Study: International Recommended Practices for Wind Energy Conversion Systems Testing 3, Fatigue Characteristics, 1st edn. (1984)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lloyd, G.: Rules and Regulations IV - Non Marine Technology, Part 1 Wind Energy, Regulations for the Certification of Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Clegster 1-10 (1993), N1 (1994), N2 2 (1998)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dahlroth, D.: Load Cases for Medium-Sized Wind Power Plants, Greenford, 9. IEA Meeting of Experts, Structural Design Criteria for LS- WECS (1983)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Spera, D.A. (ed.): Wind Turbine Technology. ASME Press, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Langenbrinck, J.: Verifikation der Rotorlasten für die Windkraftanlage WKA-60 auf Helgoland. Master thesis, TU München, Lehrstuhl für Leichtbau (1991)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Caselitz, P.: Individual blade pitch control design for load reduction on large wind turbines. In: EWEC, Milano (2007)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thomas, R., Richards, T.R.: ERDA/NASA 100 kW MOD-0 Wind Turbine Cleveland. NASA Lewis Research Center, Ohio (1973)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cramer, G.: Entwicklung der Regelungsstruktur und Betriebsführung der Windener-gieanlage AWEc-60. SMA Report (September 1987)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lundsager, P., Christensen, C.J., Fraudsen, S.: The Measurements on the Gedser Wind Mill 1977-79. Rise National Laboratory (1979)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Linscott, B.S., et al.: Experimental Data and Theoretical Analysis of an Operating 100-kW Wind Turbine (MOD-0), DOE/NASA TM-73883 (1977)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    MOD-2 Wind Turbine System Development, Boeing Construction. Final Report, NASA CR N2 168007 (1982)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Huß, G.: Messprogramm an der Versuchsanlage WKA-60 auf Helgoland, BMFT- Research Project 0328508D. Final Report (1994)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dipl. Ing. MunichGermany

Personalised recommendations