El Chichón Volcano: Eruptive History

  • Teresa Scolamacchia
  • Lucia Capra
Part of the Active Volcanoes of the World book series (AVOLCAN)


El Chichón volcano became known worldwide after it erupted catastrophically in 1982 and killed an estimated 2,000 people. A cumulative mass of almost 8 million tons of sulfur dioxide was injected into the stratosphere. The first reconstruction(s) of the stratigraphic successions carried out at the volcano shortly after the eruption suggested a long record of eruptive activity in the geologic past. Many studies completed in the past decade, aided by 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar dating, have confirmed that the eruptive activity indeed was long lasting, occurring from eruptive centers located several km apart, before migrating at its present position. Within this context, El Chichón might better be described as a Volcanic Complex rather than a single volcano. During the Holocene at least 12 explosive eruptions originated from the same vent that was reactivated in 1982 producing pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) along many of the same pathways as those in 1982. This chapter summarizes the spatial and temporal evolution of this volcanic complex, integrating some previously unpublished data with the existing information. The time sequence of the 1982 eruptive events has been re-examined considering records from far-away stations and eyewitnesses’ accounts that were not taken into account in previous studies, providing a more coherent time-stratigraphic framework for the 1982 eruptive sequence. Considering El Chichon’s history of past eruptions, the existence of a wide, shallow, groundwater table and the re-establishment of an active hydrothermal system after the 1982 eruption, the probability of a new phreatic/phreatomagmatic eruption may still exist.


Eruptive Event Pyroclastic Density Current Eruptive Column Eruptive History Eyewitness Account 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Albarrán J (1983) Experiencias de campo y reseña de la actividad del volcán Chichonal en Abril de 1982. In: IdG UNAM (ed) El volcán Chichonal VI Convención Geologica Nacional- Sociedad Geologica Mexicana. UNAM, Mexico DF, Mexico, pp 57–67Google Scholar
  2. Austin-Erickson A, Büttner R, Dellino P, Ort MH, Zimanowski B (2008) Phreatomagmatic explosions of rhyolite magma: experimental and field evidence. J Geophys Res 113:B11201. doi: 10.1029/2008JB005731 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Atlas del Agua de la República Mexicana (1976) Secretaría de Recursos Hidráulicos, México, 253 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. Belousov A, Voight B, Belousova M (2007) Directed blasts and blasts-generated pyroclastic density currents: a comparison of the Bezymianni 1956, Mount St Helens 1980, and Soufriére Hills, Monteserrat 1997 eruptions and deposits. Bull Volcanol 69(7):701–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennet FD, Raccicchini SM (1978) Subaqueous sulphur lake in Volcan Poas. Nature 271:342–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Branney MJ, Kokelaar BP (2002) Pyroclastic density currents and the sedimentation of ignimbrites. Geol Soc Lond Mem 27:143Google Scholar
  7. Brinkley SRJ, Kirkwood JG, Lapson CW, Revelle R, Smith AL (1950) Shock from underwater and underground blasts. In: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory: the effects of atomic weapons. U.S. Printing Office, Los Alamos, New Mexico, pp 83–113Google Scholar
  8. Brown RJ, Branney MJ, Maher C, Dávila-Harris P (2010) Origin of accretionary lapilli within ground-hugging density currents: evidence from pyroclastic couplets on Tenerife. Geol Soc Am Bull 122(1/2):305–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown RJ, Bonadonna C, Durant AJ (2012) A review of volcanic ash aggregation. Phys Chem Earth, Part A/B/C 45–46:65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bonasia R, Costa A, Folch A, Macedonio G, Capra L (2012) Numerical simulation of tephra transport and deposition of the 1982 El Chichón eruption and implications for hazard assessment. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 231–232:39–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Büttner R, Zimanowski B (1998) Physics of thermo-hydraulic explosions. Phys Rev E 57:5726–5729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Büttner R, Dellino P, Zimanowski B (1999) Identifying magma-water interaction from the surface features of ash particles. Nature 401:688–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bursik M (2001) Effect of wind on the rise height of volcanic plumes. Geophys Res Lett 18:3621–3624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Canul RF, Rocha VL (1981) Informe geológico de la zona geotérmica de “El Chichonal”. Chiapas Comisión Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, México. Informe 32–81:38Google Scholar
  15. Canul RF, Razo AM, Rocha VL (1983) Geología e historia volcanológica del volcán Chichónal, Estado de Chiapas. Revista del Instituto de Geología, U.N.A.M., México, pp 3–22Google Scholar
  16. Carey S, Sigurdsson H (1986) The 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano, Mexico (2): observation and numerical modelling of tephra-fall distribution. Bull Volcanol 48:127–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carey S, Sigurdsson H (1989) The intensity of Plinian eruptions. Bull Volcanol 51:28–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cas RAF, Wright JV (1987) Volcanic successions: modern and ancient. Chapman & Hall, London, 528 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Casadevall TJ, De la Cruz-Reyna S, Rose WI, Bagley S, Finnegan DL, Zoller WH (1984) Crater lake and post-eruption hydrothermal activity, El Chichón Volcano, Mexico. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 23:169–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Christenson BW (2000) Geochemistry of fluids associated with the 1995–1996 eruption of Mt. Ruapehu, New Zealand: signatures and processes in the magmatic-hydrothermal system. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 2000:1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Christenson BW, Wood CP (1993) Evolution of a vent-hosted hydrothermal system beneath Ruapehu Crater Lake, New Zealand. Bull Volcanol 55:547–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Christenson BW, Reyes AG, Young R, Moebis A, Sherburn S, Cole-Baker J, Britten K (2010) Cyclic processes and factors leading to phreatic eruption events: insights from the 25 September 2007 eruption through Ruapehu Crater Lake, New Zealand. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 191:15–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Colgate SA, Sigurgeisson T (1973) Dynamic mixing of water and lava. Nature 244:552–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cole PD, Guest JE, Duncan AM, Pacheco JM (2001) Capelinhos 1957–1958, Faial Azores: deposits formed by an emergent surtseyan eruption. Bull Volcanol 63:204–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Costa A, Macedonio G, Folch A (2006) A three-dimensional Eulerian model for transport and deposition of volcanic ashes. Earth Plan Sci Lett 241:634–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Damon P, Montesinos E (1978) Late Cenozoic volcanism and metallogenesis over an active Benioff zone in Chiapas, Mexico. Ariz Geol Soc Dig XI:155–168Google Scholar
  27. De la Cruz Reyna S, Martin Del Pozzo AL (2009) The 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano, Mexico: eyewitness of the disaster. Geofis Int 48:21–31Google Scholar
  28. Druitt TH (1998) Pyroclastic density currents. In: Gilbert JS, Sparks RSJ (eds) The physics of explosive volcanic eruptions. Geological Society of London, Special Publication, London, pp 145–182Google Scholar
  29. Duffield W, Tilling R, Canul RF (1984) Geology of El Chichón volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 20:117–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Espíndola JM, Macías JL, Tilling R, Sheridan MF (2000) Volcanic history of El Chichón volcano (Chiapas, Mexico) during the Holocene and its impact on human activity. Bull Volcanol 62:90–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fisher RV (1990) Transport and deposition of pyroclastic surge across an area of high relief: the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington. Geol Soc Am Bull 102:1038–1054CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fisher RV, Waters A (1970) Base surge bed forms in maar volcanoes. Am J Sci 268:157–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fisher RV, Schmincke, HU (1984) Pyroclastic rocks. Springer, Berlin, 472 ppGoogle Scholar
  34. Folch A, Costa A, Macedonio G (2009) FALL3D: a computational model for transport and deposition of volcanic ash. Comput Geosci 35(6):1334–1342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Francis PW, Thorpe RS, Brown GC, Glasscock J (1980) Pyroclastic sulphur eruption at Poás volcano, Costa Rica. Nature 283:754–756CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Freundt A, Bursik M (1998) Pyroclastic flow transport mechanisms. In: Freundt A, Rosi M (eds) From magma to tephra. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 173–231Google Scholar
  37. García-Palomo A, Macías JL, Espíndola JM (2004) Strike-slip faults and K-alkaline volcanism at El Chichón volcano, southeastern Mexico. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 136:247–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gorshkov GS (1959) Gigantic eruption of the Volcano Bezymianny. Bull Volcanol 20:77–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gorshkov GS (1963) Directed volcanic blasts. Bull Volcanol 26:83–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Heiken GH (1971) Tuff rings: examples from the Fort Rock -Christmas Lake Valley basin, south-central Oregon. J Geophys Phys Res 76:5615–5626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Haskov J, De la Cruz Reyna S, Sing SK, Medina F, Gutiérrez C (1983) Seismic activity related to the March–April 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. Geophys Res Lett 10(4):239–296Google Scholar
  42. Heiken GH, Wholetz K (1985) Volcanic ash. University of California Press, Berkeley, p 246Google Scholar
  43. Hoblitt R, Miller CD, Wallance JW (1981) Origin and stratigraphy of the deposit produced by the May 18 directed blast. In: Lipmann PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington. Washington D.C., pp 401–419Google Scholar
  44. Hoblitt RP, Wolfe EW, Scott WE, Couchman MR, Pallister JS, Javier D (1996) The Preclimactic eruptions of Mount Pinatubo, June 1991. In: Newhall CG, Punongbayan, RS (eds) Fire and mud. University of Washington Press, Washington D.C., pp 457–511Google Scholar
  45. Ishihara K (1985) Dynamic analysis of volcanic explosions. J Geodyn 3:327–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jimenez Z, Espíndola VH, Espíndola JM (1999) Evolution of the seismic activity from the 1982 eruption of El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. Bull Volcanol 61:411–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jutzeler M, Varley N, Roach M (2011) Geophysical characterization of hydrothermal system and intrusive bodies, El Chichón volcano (Mexico). J Geophys Res 116:B04104Google Scholar
  48. Kieffer SW (1981a) Blast dynamics at Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980. Nature 291:568–570Google Scholar
  49. Kieffer S (1981b) Fluid dynamics of the May 18 blast at Mount St. Helens. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux, DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. U.S. Geological Survey, pp 379–400Google Scholar
  50. Kieffer S, Sturtevant B (1984) Laboratory studies of volcanic jets. J Geophys Res 89:8253–8268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kokelaar BP (1986) Magma-water interaction in subaqueous and emergent basaltic volcanism. Bull Volcanol 48:275–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Krueger A (1983) Sighting of El Chichón sulfur dioxide clouds with the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Specrometer. Science 220(4604):1377–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Krueger AJ, Walter LS, Bhartia PK, Schnetzler CC, Krotkov NA, Sprod I, Bluth GJS (1995) Volcanic sulfur dioxide measurements from the total ozone mass spectrometer instruments. J Geophys Res 100:14057–14076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Krueger A, Krotov N, Carn S (2008) El Chichon: the genesis of volcanic sulfur dioxide monitoring from space. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 175:408–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Layer PW, García-Palomo A, Jones D, Macías JL, Arce JL, Mora JC (2009) El Chichón volcanic complex, Chiapas, México: stages of evolution based on field mapping and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. Geofís Int 48:33–54Google Scholar
  56. Lorenz V (1974) Vesiculated tuffs and associated features. Sedimentology 21:273–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Luhr JF (2008) Primary igneous anhydrite: progress since its recognition in the 1982 El Chichón trachyandesite. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 175:394–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Luhr JF, Logan MAV (2002) Sulfur isotope systematics of the 1982 El Chichón trachyandesite: a ion micropobe study. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 66(18):3303–3316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Luhr JF, Carmichael ISE, Varekamp JC (1984) The 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano, Chiapas, Mexico: mineralogy and petrology of the anhydrite bearing pumices. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 23:69–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Macías JL (1994) Violent short-lived eruptions from small-size volcanoes: El Chichón, Mexico (1982) and Shtyubel, Russia (1907). Ph.D. dissertation, State University of New York, BuffaloGoogle Scholar
  61. Macías JL, Sheridan MF, Espíndola JM (1997) Reappraisal of the 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano, Chiapas, Mexico: new data from proximal deposits. Bull Volcanol 58:459–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Macías JL, Espíndola JM, Bursik M, Sheridan MF (1998) Development of lithic-breccias in the 1982 pyroclastic flow deposits of El Chichón Volcano, Mexico. J Volcanol Geothermal Res 83:173–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Macías JL, Arce JL, Mora JC, Espíndola JM, Saucedo R, Manetti P (2003) A 500-year-old Plinian eruption at El Chichón volcano, Chiapas, Mexico: explosive volcanism linked to reheating of the magma reservoir. J Geophys Res 108(B12):2569 doi: 10.1029/2003JB002551
  64. Macías JL, Capra L, Scott KM, Espíndola JM, García-Palomo A, Costa JE (2004) The 26 May 1982 breakout flows derived from a failure of a volcanic dam at El Chichón, Chiapas, Mexico. Geol Soc Am Bull 116(1–2):233–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Macías JL, Capra L, Arce JL, Espíndola JM, García-Palomo A, Sheridan MF (2008) Hazard map of El Chichón volcano, Mexico: Constraints posed by eruptive history and computer simulations. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 175(4):444–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Macías JL, Arce JL, Garduño-Monroy VH, Rouwet D, Taran Y, Layer P, Jiménez A, Álvarez R (2010): Estudio de prospección geotérmica para evaluar el potencial del volcán Chichonal, Chiapas. Unpublished Report no. 9400047770 IGF-UNAM-CFEGoogle Scholar
  67. Matson M (1984) The 1982 El Chichón volcano eruption-a satellite perspective. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 23:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mauk FJ (1983) Utilization of seismically recorded infrasonic acoustic signals to monitor volcanic explosions: the El Chichón sequence 1982- a case study. J Geophys Res 88:10385–310401Google Scholar
  69. Medina-Martínez F (1982) El Volcán Chichón. GEOS 2(4):19Google Scholar
  70. Mendoza-Rosas AT, De la Cruz-Reyna S (2010) Hazard estimates for El Chichón volcano, Chiapas, Mexico: a statistical approach for complex eruptive histories. Nat Haz Earth Syst Sci 10:1159–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Moore JC, Nakamura K, Alcaraz A (1966) The 1965 eruption of Taal volcano. Science 151:955–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Moore JC (1967) Base surges in recent volcanic eruptions. Bull Volcanol 30:337–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Moore JG, Sisson TW (1981) Deposits and effects of the May 18 pyroclastic surge. In: Lipmann PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens, Washington. Washington D.C., pp 421–438Google Scholar
  74. Mooser F, Meyer-Abich, H, Mc Birney AR (1958) Catalogue of the active volcanoes of the world including Solfatara fields. Part VI, Central America. International Volcanological Association, Napoli, pp 26–30Google Scholar
  75. Morrisey MM, Mastin L (2000) Vulcanian eruptions In: Sigurdsson H, Houghton B, Rymer H, Stix J, Mc Nutt S (eds) Encyclopedia of volcanoes. Academic Press, New York, pp 463–475Google Scholar
  76. Mülliered FKG (1932) Der Chichón, ein bischer unbegannter tätiger Vulkan im nordlichen Chiapas, Mexiko. Zeit Vulkanol XIV:191–209Google Scholar
  77. Mülliered F (1933) “El Volcán”, único volcán en actividad descubierto en el estado de Chiapas. Mem Rev Acad Ciencias “Antonio Alzate” 54(11/12):411–416Google Scholar
  78. Nairn IA (1976) Atmospheric shock waves and condensation clouds from Ngauruhoe explosive eruptions. Nature 259:190–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Nairn IA, Wood CP, Hewson CAY (1979) Phreatic eruptions of Ruapehu: April 1975. NZ J Volcanol Geophys 22(2):155–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Oppenheimer C (1992) Sulphur eruptions at Volcán Poás, Costa Rica. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 49:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Oppenheimer C, Stevenson D (1989) Liquid sulphur lakes at Poás volcano. Nature 342:790–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Orescanin MM, Austin JM, Kieffer SW (2010) Unsteady high-pressure flow experiments with application to explosive volcanic eruptions. J Geophys Res 115:B06206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Parker DE, Brownscombe JL (1983) Stratospheric warming following the El Chichón volcanic eruption. Nature 301:406–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Quintas I (2000) Eric II. Documento de la base de datos climatológica y del programa extractor. Instituto Mexicano de Tecnología del Agua. Morelos, Mexico, 75 ppGoogle Scholar
  85. Reimer PJ, Baillie MGL, Bard E, Bayliss A, Beck JW, Bertrand CJH, Blackwell PG, Buck CE, Burr GS, Cutler KB, Damon PE, Edwards RL, Fairbanks RG, Friedrich M, Guilderson TP, Hogg AG, Hughen KA, Kromer B, McCormac FG, Manning SW, Ramsey CB, Reimer RW, Remmele S, Southon JR, Stuiver M, Talamo S, Taylor FW, van der Plicht J, Weyhenmeyer CE (2004) IntCal04 Terrestrial radiocarbon age calibration, 26–0 ka BP. Radiocarbon 46:1029–1058Google Scholar
  86. Richards AF (1959) Geology of the Islas Revillagigedo, Mexico. 1. Birth and development of Volcán Bárcena, Isla San Benedicto. Bull Volcanol 22:73–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Rye RO, Luhr JF, Wasserman MD (1984) Sulfur and oxygen isotopic systematics of the 1982 eruptions of El Chichón volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 23:109–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Rose WI, Bornhorst TJ, Halsor SP, Capaul WA, Plumey PS, De la Cruz Reyna S, Mena M, Mota R (1984) Volcán El Chichón, Mexico: pre S-rich eruptive activity. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 23:147–167Google Scholar
  89. Scolamacchia T, Macías JL (2005) Distribution and stratigraphy of deposits produced by diluted pyroclastic density currents of the 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. Rev Mex Cienc Geol 22:159–180Google Scholar
  90. Scolamacchia T, Macías JL, Sheridan MF, Hughes SR (2005) Morphology of ash aggregates from wet pyroclastic surges of the 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano, Mexico. Bull Volcanol 68:171–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Scolamacchia T, Schouwenaars R (2009) High-speed impacts by ash particles in the 1982 eruption of El Chichón (Mexico). J Geophys Res 114:B12206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Scolamacchia T. (2012) “El Chichón 1982: reinterpretación de la cronología de los eventos eruptivos”. Unión Geofísica Mexicana (UGM) General Meeting, Puerto Vallarta, México, October 28–November 2, 2012. Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  93. Scolamacchia T (2014) Another look to the mechanisms of formation of ash aggregates in pyroclastic deposits. In: Rocha R, Pais, J, Kullberg, JC, Finney S (eds) At the cutting edge of Stratigraphy. STRATI First International Congress on Stratigraphy, Lisboa, Portugal, 1–7 July 2013. Springer Geology, vol XLV. 1343 ppGoogle Scholar
  94. Scolamacchia T, Dingwell DB (2014) Sulfur as a binding agent of aggregates in explosive eruptions. Bull Volcanol 76(10):871. doi: 10.1007/s00445-014-0871-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schumacher R, Schmincke HU (1995) Models for the origin of accretionary lapilli. Bull Volcanol 56:626–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. SEAN Smithsonian Institution (1989) Global volcanism 1975–1985. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, p 657Google Scholar
  97. Sheridan MF, Wohletz K (1981) Hydrovolcanic explosions: the systematics of water-pyroclast equilibration. Science 212:1387–1389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sheridan MF, Wohletz KH (1983a) Hydrovolcanism: basic considerations and review. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 17:1–29Google Scholar
  99. Sheridan MF, Wohletz, KH. (1983b) Origin of accretionary lapilli from the Pompeii and Avellino deposits of Vesuvius. In: Gooley R (ed) Microbeam analysis. San Francisco Press, Phoenix, p 336Google Scholar
  100. Sigurdsson H, Carey SN, Espíndola JM (1984) The 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano, Mexico: stratigraphy of pyroclastic deposits. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 23:11–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sigurdsson H, Carey SN, Fisher RV (1987) The 1982 eruptions of El Chichón volcano, Mexico (3): physical properties of pyroclastic surges. Bull Volcanol 49(2):467–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Sohn YK, Chough SK (1992) The Ilchulbong tuff cone, Cheju Island, South Korea: depositional processes and evolution of an emergent, Surtseyan-type tuff cone. Sedimentology 39:523–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sohn YK, Cronin SJ, Brenna M, Smith IEM, Németh K, White JDL, Murtagh RM, Jeon YM, Kwon CW (2012) Ilchulbong tuff cone, Jeju Island, Korea, revisited: a compound monogenetic volcano involving multiple magma pulses, shifting vents, and discrete eruptive phases. Geol Soc Am Bull 124(3/4):259–274. doi: 10.1130/B30447.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Stuiver M, Reimer PJ (1986) A computer program for radiocarbon age calibration. Radiocarbon 28:1022–1030Google Scholar
  105. Sulpizio R, Zanella E, Macías JL (2008) Deposition temperature of some PDC deposits from the 1982 reuption of El Chichón volcano (Chiapas, Mexico) inferred from rock magnetic data. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 175(4):494–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tahira M, Nomura M, Sawada Y, Kosuke K (1996) Infrasonic and acoustic-gravity waves generated by the Mount Pinatubo eruption of June, 15, 1991. In: Newhall CG, Punongbayan RS (eds) Fire and mud. University of Washington Press, Washington D.C., pp 601–612Google Scholar
  107. Taylor GA (1958) The 1958 eruption of Mount Lamington, Papua. Austr Bur Min Resour Geol Geophys Bull 38:1–117Google Scholar
  108. Templos LA, Munguia Bracamontes F, Barrera VM (1981) Observaciones geoquímicas en la zona geotérmica del Chichonál, Chiapas, Mexico. Unpublished report. Comisión Federal de Electricidad, Mexico. Informe 33–81:32Google Scholar
  109. Tilling RI (2009) El Chichón “surprise” eruption in 1982: lessons for reducing volcano risk. Geofís Int 48(1):3–19Google Scholar
  110. Tilling R, Rubin M, Sigurdsson H, Carey S, Duffield W, Rose WI (1984) Holocene eruptive activity of El Chichón volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. Science 224:747–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Valentine GA (1998) Damage to structures by pyroclastic flows and surges, inferred from nuclear weapons effects. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 87:117–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Valentine G, Wohletz KH (1989) Numerical models of Plinian eruption columns and pyroclastic flows. J Geophys Res 94:1867–1887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Valentine GA, Fisher RV (2000) Pyroclastic surges and blasts In: Sigurdsson H, Houghton B, McNutt SR, Hazel R, Stix J (eds) Encyclopedia of volcanoes. Academic Press, New York, pp 571–580Google Scholar
  114. Varekamp JC, Luhr JF, Prestegaard KL (1984) The 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano (Chiapas, Mexico): character of the eruptions, ash-fall deposits and gas phase. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 23:39–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Walker GPL (1971) Grain-size characteristics of pyroclastic deposits. J Geol 79:696–714CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Walker GL (1984) Characteristics of dune-bedded pyroclastic surge bedset. J Volcanol Geoth Res 20:281–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Waters AC, Fisher RV (1971) Base surges and their deposits: Capelinhos and Taal volcanoes. J Geophys Res 76:5596–5614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. White JDL (1991) Maar-diatreme phreatomagmatism at Hopi Buttes, Navajo Nation (Arizona), USA. Bull Volcanol 53:239–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Widmer R, Zürn W (1992) Bichromatic excitation of long-period Rayleigh and air waves by the Mount Pinatubo and El Chichón volcanic eruptions. Geophys Res Lett 19(8):765–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wilson CJN, Houghton BF (2000) Pyroclastic transport and deposition In: Sigurdsson H, Houghton B, McNutt SR, Hazel R, Stix J (eds) Encyclopedia of Volcanoes. Academic Press, New York, pp 545–55Google Scholar
  121. Wohletz KH (1983) Mechanisms of hydrovolcanic pyroclast formation: grain-size, scanning electron microscopy, and experimental studies. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 17:31–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wohletz KH, Sheridan MF (1979) A model for pyroclastic surge. Geol Soc Am Spec Pap 180:305–318Google Scholar
  123. Wohletz KH, Sheridan MF (1983) Hydrovolcanic explosions II. Evolution of basaltic tuff rings and tuff cones. Am J Sci 283:385–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wohletz KH, Valentine GA (1990) Computer simulations of explosive volcanic eruptions. In: Ryan MP (ed) Magma transport and storage. Wiley, New York, pp 113–135Google Scholar
  125. Wohletz KH, McGetchin TR, Sanford MT II, Jones EM (1984) Hydrodynamics aspects of caldera-forming eruptions: numerical models. J Geophys Res 89:8269–8285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Young GA (1965) The physics of base surge. In: U.S. Naval Ordenance Lab NOLTR 64-103, AD-618733, Wake Oak, Maryland, p 294Google Scholar
  127. Zimanowski B (1998) Phreatomagmatic explosions. In: Freundt A, Rosi M (eds) From magma to tephra: modelling physical processes of explosive volcanic eruptions Elsevier Science Publications, Amsterdam, pp 25–54Google Scholar
  128. Zimanowski B, Wohletz KH (2000) Physics of phreatomagmatism-I. Terra Nostra 6:515–523Google Scholar
  129. Zimanowski B, Frölich G, Lorenz V (1991) Quantitative experiments on phreatomagmatic explosions. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 48:341–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Zimanowski B, Büttner, R, Lorenz V (1997a) Premixing of magma and water in MFCI experiments. Bull Volcanol 58:491–495Google Scholar
  131. Zimanowski B, Büttner R, Lorenz V, Häfele H G (1997b) Fragmentation of basaltic melt in the course of explosive volcanism. J Geophys Res 102(B1):803–814Google Scholar
  132. Zürn W, Widmer R (1996) Worldwide observation of bichromatic long-period Rayleigh waves excited during the June, 15, 1991, eruption of Mount Pinatubo. In: Newhall CG, Punongbayan RS (eds) Fire and mud. University of Washington, Press Seattle, pp 615–624Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Earth and Environmental SciencesLMUMunichGermany
  2. 2.Campus UNAM JuriquillaCentro de GeocienciasJuriquillaMexico

Personalised recommendations