Advertisement

Towards a Theory of Trust in Networks of Humans and Computers

  • Virgil Gligor
  • Jeannette M. Wing
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7114)

Abstract

We argue that a general theory of trust in networks of humans and computers must be build on both a theory of behavioral trust and a theory of computational trust. This argument is motivated by increased participation of people in social networking, crowdsourcing, human computation, and socio-economic protocols, e.g., protocols modeled by trust and gift-exchange games [3,10,11], norms-establishing contracts [1], and scams [6,35,33]. User participation in these protocols relies primarily on trust, since on-line verification of protocol compliance is often impractical; e.g., verification can lead to undecidable problems, co-NP complete test procedures, and user inconvenience. Trust is captured by participant preferences (i.e., risk and betrayal aversion) and beliefs in the trustworthiness of other protocol participants [11,10]. Both preferences and beliefs can be enhanced whenever protocol noncompliance leads to punishment of untrustworthy participants [11,23]; i.e., it seems natural that betrayal aversion can be decreased and belief in trustworthiness increased by properly defined punishment [1]. We argue that a general theory of trust should focus on the establishment of new trust relations where none were possible before. This focus would help create new economic opportunities by increasing the pool of usable services, removing cooperation barriers among users, and at the very least, taking advantage of “network effects.” Hence a new theory of trust would also help focus security research in areas that promote trust-enhancement infrastructures in human and computer networks. Finally, we argue that a general theory of trust should mirror, to the largest possible extent, human expectations and mental models of trust without relying on false methaphors and analogies with the physical world.

Keywords

Risk Aversion Recommendation System Social Preference Risk Preference Computer Security 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Akerlof, R.: Punishment, Compliance, and Anger in Equilibrium. Job Market Paper, November 18. MIT Sloan School (2010), http://mit.academia.edu/RobertAkerlof/Papers/163148/Punishment_Compliance_and_Anger_in_Equilibrium_JOB_MARKET_PAPER_
  2. 2.
    Anderson, R.J.: Security Engineering, 2nd edn. Wiley (2008)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Berg, J., Dickhaut, J., McCabe, K.: Trust, Reciprocity, and Social History. Games and Economic Behavior 100 (1995)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Birrell, A., Lampson, B., Needham, R., Schroeder, M.: Global Authentication without Global Trust. In: IEEE Symp. on Security and Privacy, Oakland, CA (1987)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen, C.-H., Chen, C.-W., Kuo, C., Lai, Y.-H., McCune, J.M., Studer, A., Perrig, A., Yang, B.-Y., Wu, T.-C.: GAnGS: Gather Authenticate ’n Group Securely. In: ACM Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom), San Francisco, CA, September 13 - 19 (2008)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Christin, N., Yanagihara, S.S., Kamataki, K.: Dissecting One click Frauds. In: ACM CCS, Chicago, Illinois (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Clark, D.D., Blumenthal, M.S.: The End-to-End Argument and Application Design: the Role of Trust. Federal Communications Law Journal 63(2), 357–390 (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Falk, A., Fischbacher, U.: A Theory of Reciprocity. Games and Economic Behavior 54, 293–315 (2006)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fehr, E., Fischbacher, U., Kosfeld, M.: Neuroeconomic Foundations of Trust and Social Preferences. In: Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit, IZA (Institute for the Study of Labor), Bonn, Germany (2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fehr, E.: The Economics and Biology of Trust. Journal of the European Economics Association (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    de Quervain, D., Fishbacher, U., Treyer, V., Schellhammer, M., Schnyder, U., Buck, A., Fehr, E.: The Neural Basis for Altruistic Punishment. Science, August 27 (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eschenauer, L., Gligor, V.D., Baras, J.: On Trust Establishment in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks. In: Christianson, B., Crispo, B., Malcolm, J.A., Roe, M. (eds.) Security Protocols 2002. LNCS, vol. 2845, pp. 47–66. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gligor, V., Luan, S.-W., Pato, J.: Inter-Realm Authentication in Large Distributed Systems. In: IEEE Symp. on Security and Privacy, Oakland, CA (1992); The Journal of Computer Security (1993)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gligor, V., Perrig, A., Zhao, J.: Brief Encounters with a Random Key Graph. In: International Workshop on Security Protocols, Cambridge, UK (April 2009) (to appear in LNCS, Springer Verlag)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gupta, S., Gligor, V.: Towards a Theory of Penetration-Resistant Systems and its Applications. In: IEEE Computer Security Foundations Workshop, Franconia, NH (1991); The Journal of Computer Security.  1(2), 133–158 (1992)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bachmann, R., Zaheer, A.: Handbook of Trust Research. Edward Elgar Publishing (2006)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Howard, M., Pincus, J., Wing, J.M.: Measuring Relative Attack Surfaces. In: Lee, D.T., Shieh, S.P., Tygar, J.D. (eds.) Computer Security in the 21st Century, pp. 109–137. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hsiao, H.-C., Studer, A., Chen, C., Perrig, A., Bai, F., Bellur, B., Iyer, A.: Flooding-Resilient Broadcast Authentication for VANETs. In: ACM Annual International Conference on Mobile Computing and Networking (MobiCom), Las Vegas, Nevada (September 2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Josang, A., Goldbeck, J.: Challenges for Robust Trust and Reputation Systems. In: 5th International Workshop on Security and Trust Management (STM), Saint Malo, France (September 2009)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kahneman, D., Tversky, A.: Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk. Econometrica 47(2), 263–291 (1979)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kim, H.J., Owusu, E., Gligor, V., Perrig, A., Hong, J., Yamada, A.: Robust Online Trust Establishment through Visualization of Tie Strength, CMU CyLab Technical Report (February 2011)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lampson, B., Abadi, M., Burrows, M., Wobber, T.: Authentication: Theory and Practice. ACM TOCS (1992)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lampson, B.W.: Usable Security: How to Get It. In: Comm. ACM (November 2009)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bachmann, R., Zaheer, A.: Landmark Papers on Trust (The International Library of Critical Writings on Business and Management), vol. I, II. Edward Elgar Publishing (2008)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Luk, M., Whillock, B., Perrig, A.: Seven Cardinal Properties of Sensor Network Broadcast Authentication. In: ACM Workshop on Security of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, SASN (October 2006)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lin, Y.-H., Studer, A., Chen, Y.-H., Hsiao, H.-C., Kuo, L.-H., Lee, J., McCune, J.M., Wang, K.-H., Krohn, M., Lin, P.-L., Perrig, A., Sun, H.-M., Yang, B.-Y.: SPATE: Small-Group PKI-Less Authenticated Trust Establishment. IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing 9(12) (December 2010)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lin, Y.-H., Studer, A., Hsiao, H.-C., McCune, J.M., Wang, K.-H., Krohn, M., Lin, P.-L., Perrig, A., Sun, H.-M., Yang, B.-Y.: SPATE: Small-group PKI-less Authenticated Trust Establishment. In: International Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications and Services (MobiSys), June 22-25 (2009)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Manadhata, P.K., Wing, J.M.: An Attack Surface Metric. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering (June 2010)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Marbach, P.: A Lower Bound on the umber of Rankings Required in Recommender Systems Using Collaborative Filtering. In: IEEE Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, pp. 292–297. Princeton University, NJ (2008)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
    McCune, J.M., Perrig, A., Reiter, M.K.: Seeing-Is-Believing: Using Camera Phones for Human-Verifiable Authentication. In: IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (2005)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Raya, M., Papadimitratos, P., Gligor, V., Hubaux, J.P.: On Data-Centric Trust Establishment in Ephemeral Ad Hoc Networks. In: INFOCOM (2008)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ryan, T.: Getting in Bed with Robin Sage. In: Black Hat Conference (2010)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Simon, H.A.: Rational choice and the structure of the environment. Psychological Review 63, 129–138 (1956)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stajano, F., Wilson, P.: Understanding Scam Victims: Seven Principles for Systems Security. Comm. ACM 54(3), 70–75 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Surie, A., Perrig, A., Satyanarayanan, M., Farber, D.: Rapid Trust Establishment for Pervasive Personal Computing. IEEE Pervasive Computing 6(4), 24–30 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tversky, A., Kahneman, D.: Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Science 185(4157), 1124–1131 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wendlandt, D., Andersen, D., Perrig, A.: Perspectives: Improving SSH-style Host Authentication with Multi-Path Probing. In: USENIX Annual Technical Conference (June 2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Virgil Gligor
    • 1
  • Jeannette M. Wing
    • 1
  1. 1.Carnegie Mellon UniversityPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations