How Do Lettuce Seedlings Adapt to Low-pH Stress Conditions? A Mechanism for Low-pH-Induced Root Hair Formation in Lettuce Seedlings

  • Hidenori Takahashi


Plants are always surrounded by various environmental factors that may act as stressors. Acid rain and acid soil are serious environmental problems that inhibit plant growth. Most studies on acid stress have focused on the toxicity of aluminum (Al) solubilized from the soil by low pH; studies on the effect of low pH alone, however, are limited. Recently, the H+-hypersensitive mutant stop1 was identified. The STOP1 gene is predicted to be involved in signal transduction of H+ and Al tolerance. Analysis of the stop1 mutant facilitated our understanding of the molecular basis of H+ tolerance in plants and the linkage between the H+ and Al toxicity signaling pathways. Low-pH-induced root hair formation in lettuce seedlings is an excellent model for studying adaptation of plants to low-pH stress. Lettuce seedlings form many root hairs at pH 4.0, whereas no root hairs are formed at pH 6.0. Root hairs increase the absorption of water and nutrients from the growth-inhibited main root at pH 4.0. Various key factors in root hair formation have been identified: medium pH, auxin, ethylene, light, cortical microtubule (CMT) randomization, manganese (Mn), sugar, and chlorogenic acid (CGA), all of which interact within a complex network. Light signals are mediated by auxin and ethylene and induce CMT randomization and root hair elongation. Expression of the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS), ACC oxidase (ACO), and ethylene receptor gene families is differentially regulated by pH, auxin, ethylene, and light. General opinions on microtubule reorganization and its protection against biotic/abiotic stresses are also reviewed.


Root Hair Phosphatidic Acid Ethylene Receptor Root Hair Formation Lettuce Seedling 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid


ACC oxidase


ACC synthase




Chlorogenic acid


Cortical microtubule


Indole-3-acetic acid


Mitogen-activated protein kinase


Phosphatidic acid


2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid


Phospholipase D


Reactive oxygen species




Stress-induced MAPK


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© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of ScienceToho UniversityFunabashiJapan

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