Retinal Vascular Imaging for Cardiovascular Risk Prediction

  • Ryo Kawasaki
  • Tien Yin Wong


Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major public health problems worldwide. Early identification of people at risk of CVD is important to design and implement preventative strategies. Traditionally, CVD risk has been assessed based on conventional risk factors (e.g. cholesterol, smoking) and risk prediction models (e.g. Framingham); however, traditional risk assessment is not accurate and universally applicable to all populations. The retinal vasculature provides a unique window to assess vascular health non-invasively and directly in vivo. It has shown that various retinal signs, measured from imaging techniques, are associated with future development of CVD and might be useful for CVD risk prediction. In particular, retinopathy signs (e.g. microaneurysms, haemorrhages) and biometry of the retinal vessels (e.g. retinal calibre) have strong associations with CVD, independent of traditional risk factors. Retinal imaging with telemedicine could therefore be a potentially useful clinical tool for the prediction of CVD.


Retinal Imaging Framingham Risk Score Retinal Vasculature Arteriolar Narrowing Ischaemic Heart Disease Mortality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ryo Kawasaki
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Tien Yin Wong
    • 1
  1. 1.Retinal Vascular Imaging Centre, Centre for Eye Research Australia, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear HospitalUniversity of MelbourneEast MelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Faculty of MedicineYamagata UniversityYamagataJapan
  3. 3.Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, Singapore Eye Research InstituteNational University of Singapore, Singapore National Eye CentreSingaporeSingapore

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