A Computer Architecture for Intelligent Agents with Personality and Emotions

  • Ary Fagundes Bressane Neto
  • Flavio Soares Correa da Silva
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 396)


In the crossroad between Artificial Intelligence and Digital Entertainment we find the technologies to create characters that are adaptable to new situations, unpredictable, fast learners, enabled with memory of past situations and a variety of consistent and convincing behaviour over time. According to recent studies in the fields of Neuroscience and Psychology, the ability to solve problems is not only related to the capability to manipulate symbols, but also to the ability to explore the environment and to engage into social interactions, which can be expressed as emotional phenomena. The results of these studies characterize the key role that personality and emotions play in the activities of perception, attention, planning, reasoning, creativity, learning, memory and decision making. When modules for handling personality and emotion are incorporated into an agent architecture, it is possible to build believable agents. In the present work, we introduce a computer architecture to build believable agents enabled with personality and emotion.


Computer Game Emotional State Affective State Multiagent System Mood State 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bates, J.: The Role of Emotion in Believable Agents. Communications of the ACM, 122–125 (1994)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bordini, R.H., Hübner, J.F., Wooldridge, M.: Programming Multi-Agent Systems in AgentSpeak using Jason. Wiley Interscience, Chichester (2007)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bates, J., Loyall, A.B., Reilly, W.S.: An architecture for action, emotion, and social behavior. In: 4th European Workshop on Modelling Autonomous Agents, Martino al Camino (1992)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bower, G.H.: Mood and memory. American Psychology, 129–148 (1981)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Byl, P.B.: Programming Believable Characters For Computer Games. Charles River Media, Hingham (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Damásio, A.R.: Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. Putnam Publishing, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Davidson, R.J.: On emotion, mood, and related affective constructs. In: Ekman, P., Davidson, R.J. (eds.) The Nature of Emotion. Oxford University Press, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fehr, B., Russell, J.A.: Concept of emotion viewed from a prototype perspective. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 464–486 (1984)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gebhard, P.: ALMA: a layered model of affect. In: Proceedings of The Fourth International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, Utrecht (2005)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gazzaniga, M.S., Heatherton, T.F.: Psychological Sciences: Mind, Brain, and Behavior. W.W. Norton, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Izard, C.E.: Four Systems for Emotion Activation: Cognitive and Noncognitive Processes. Psychological Review, 68–90 (1993)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jiang, H., Vidal, J.M., Huhns, M.N.: EBDI: An Architecture for Emotional Agents. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, Honolulu (2007)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kasap, Z., Moussa, M.B., Chaudhuri, P., Magnenat-Thalmann, N.: Making them remember - emotional virtual characters with memory. IEEE Computer Graphics And Applications, 20–29 (2009)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kshirsagar, S., Magnenat-Thalmann, N.: A multilayer personality model. In: Proceedings of The 2nd International Symposium on Smart Graphics, Hawthorne (2002)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kasap, Z., Magnenat-Thalmann, N.: Intelligent virtual humans with autonomy and personality: State-of-the-art. Journal of Intelligent Decision Technologies, 3–15 (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Laird, J.E.: Extending the Soar Cognitive Architecture. In: Proceeding of the 2008 Conference on Artificial General Intelligence, Amsterdam (2008)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ledoux, J.E.: The Emotional Brain. Simon And Schuster, New York (1996)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Laird, J., van Lent, M.: Behavior Modeling in Commercial Games. AI Magazine, 15–25 (2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    McCrae, R.R., Costa, R.T.: A Five-Factor Theory of personality. In: Pervin, L.A., John, O.P. (eds.) Handbook of personality: Theory and research, Guilford, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mehrabian, A.: A General Powerful System for Assessing Temperament Personality (2009), (cited March 15, 2010)
  21. 21.
    Mehrabian, A.: Pleasure-arousal-dominance: A general framework for describing and measuring individual differences in Temperament. Current Psychology, 261–292 (1995)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    McCrae, R.R., John, O.P.: An Introduction to the five-Factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality, 175–215 (1992)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Morris, W.N.: A functional analysis of the role of mood in affective systems. Review of Personality and Social Psicology, 256–293 (1992)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nareyek, A.: Intelligent Agents for Computer Games. Computers and Games, 414–422 (2001)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Niedenthal, P.M., Halberstadt, J.B., Margolin, J., Innes-Ker, A.H.: Emotional state and the detection of change in facial expression of emotion. European Journal of Social Psychology, 211–222 (2000)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Niedenthal, P.M., Setterlund, M.B.: Emotion congruence in perception. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 401–411 (1994)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ortony, A., Clore, G.L., Collins, A.: The Cognitive Structure of Emotion. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Oatley, K., Johnson-Laird, P.N.: Towards a cognitive theory of emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 29–50 (1987)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Oliveira, E., Sarmento, L.: Emotional advantage for adaptability and autonomy. In: Proceedings of the Second International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, Melbourne (2003)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Picard, R.: Affective Computing. MIT Press, Boston (1997)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pervin, L.A., John, O.P.: Personality: Theory and Research. John Wiley, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Phelps, E.A., Ling, S., Carrasco, M.: Emotion Facilitates Perception and Potentiates the Perceptual Benefits of Attention. Psychological Science, 292–299 (2006)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Russell, S., Norvig, P.: Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. Prentice Hall, New Jersey (2003)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Romano, D.M., Sheppard, G., Hall, J., Miller, A., Ma, Z.: BASIC: A Believable, Adaptable Socially Intelligent Character for Social Presence. In: The 8th Annual International Workshop on Presence, London (2005)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Stenberg, R.J.: Cognitive Psychology. Wadsworth Publishing, Belmont (2002)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Vinayagamoorthy, V., Gillies, M., Steed, A., Tanguy, E., Pan, X., Loscos, C., Slater, M.: Building Expression into Virtual Characters. In: Eurographics Conference State of the Art Reports, Vienna (2006)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wooldridge, M.: An Introduction to MultiAgent Systems. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester (2002)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yu, C.W., Choi, J.Y.: Behavior Decision Model Based on Emotion and Dynamic Personality. In: Proceedings of The International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ary Fagundes Bressane Neto
    • 1
  • Flavio Soares Correa da Silva
    • 1
  1. 1.LIDET - Laboratory of Interactivity and Digital Entertainment Technology, Institute of Mathematics and StatisticsUniversity of Sao PauloSao PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations