Micro-shock Wave Assisted Bacterial Transformation

  • G. Divya Prakash
  • S. G. Rakesh
  • Dipshikha Chakravortty
  • Nataraja Karaba
  • G. Jagadeesh

Introduction

A gene is a unit of heredity in a living organism. It normally resides on a stretch of DNA that codes for a type of protein or for an RNA chain that has a function in the organism. All living things depend on genes, as they specify all proteins and functional RNA chains. Genes hold the information to build and maintain an organism’s cells and pass genetic traits to offspring. The gene has to be transferred to bacteria or eukaryotic cells for basic and applied molecular biology studies. Bacteria can uptake exogenous genetic material by three ways: conjugation, transduction and transformation. Genetic material is naturally transferred to bacteria in case of conjugation and transferred through bacteriophage in transduction. Transformation is the acquisition of exogenous genetic material through cell wall. The ability of bacteria of being transformed is called competency and those bacteria which have competency are competent cells. Divalent Calcium ions can make the bacteria competent and a heat shock can cause the bacteria to uptake DNA. But the heat shock method cannot be used for all the bacteria. In electroporation, a brief electric shock with an electric field of 10-20kV/cmmakes pores in the cell wall, facilitates the DNA to enter into the bacteria. Microprecipitates, microinjection, liposomes, and biological vectors are also used to transfer polar molecules like DNA into host cells.

Keywords

Shock Wave Metal Foil Prokaryotic Cell Bacterial Transformation Propagate Shock Wave 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Jagadeesh, G.: Apparatus and method for delivering biologically-active substances or micro-medical devices to a target. US Patent Application No. 12480514 (under consideration) (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kodama, T., Doukas, A.G., et al.: Shock wave-mediated molecular delivery into cells. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1542(1-3), 186–194 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lauer, U., Burgelt, E., et al.: Shock wave permeabilization as a new gene transfer method. Gene Ther. 4(7), 710–715 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tschoep, K., Hartmann, G., et al.: Shock waves: a novel method for cytoplasmic delivery of antisense oligonucleotides. J. Mol. Med. 79(5-6), 306–313 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Divya Prakash
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. G. Rakesh
    • 1
  • Dipshikha Chakravortty
    • 2
  • Nataraja Karaba
    • 3
  • G. Jagadeesh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Aerospace EngineeringIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology and Cell BiologyIndian Institute of ScienceBangaloreIndia
  3. 3.Department of Crop PhysiologyUniversity of Agricultural SciencesBangaloreIndia

Personalised recommendations