Air-Sea Interactions of Natural Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) in a Changing Climate

  • Dorothee C. E. BakkerEmail author
  • Hermann W. BangeEmail author
  • Nicolas GruberEmail author
  • Truls JohannessenEmail author
  • Rob C. Upstill-GoddardEmail author
  • Alberto V. Borges
  • Bruno Delille
  • Carolin R. Löscher
  • S. Wajih A. Naqvi
  • Abdirahman M. Omar
  • J. Magdalena Santana-Casiano
Part of the Springer Earth System Sciences book series (SPRINGEREARTH)


Understanding and quantifying ocean–atmosphere exchanges of the long-lived greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) are important for understanding the global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen in the context of ongoing global climate change. In this chapter we summarise our current state of knowledge regarding the oceanic distributions, formation and consumption pathways, and oceanic uptake and emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4, with a particular emphasis on the upper ocean. We specifically consider the role of the ocean in regulating the tropospheric content of these important radiative gases in a world in which their tropospheric content is rapidly increasing and estimate the impact of global change on their present and future oceanic uptake and/or emission. Finally, we evaluate the various uncertainties associated with the most commonly used methods for estimating uptake and emission and identify future research needs.


Dissolve Inorganic Carbon Ocean Acidification Year Before Present 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, School of Environmental SciencesUniversity of East AngliaNorwichUK
  2. 2.GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research KielKielGermany
  3. 3.Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant DynamicsETH ZürichZürichSwitzerland
  4. 4.Geophysical Institute & Bjerknes Centre for Climate ResearchUniversity of BergenBergenNorway
  5. 5.School of Marine Science and TechnologyNewcastle UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  6. 6.Chemical Oceanography Unit, Institut de Physique (B5)University of LiègeLiègeBelgium
  7. 7.Chemical Oceanography UnitUniversity of LiègeLiègeBelgium
  8. 8.Institute of MicrobiologyChristian-Albrechts University KielKielGermany
  9. 9.CSIR-National Institute of OceanographyDona PaulaIndia
  10. 10.Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Uni ResearchBergenNorway
  11. 11.Facultad de Ciencias del MarUniversidad de Las Palmas de Gran CanariaLas Palmas de Gran CanariaSpain

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