Morphological, Macromolecular Structure and Hair Growth

  • Clarence R. RobbinsEmail author


At or near its surface, hair fibers contain a thick protective cover consisting of six to eight layers of flat overlapping scale-like structures called cuticle or scales which consists of high sulfur KAPs, keratin proteins and structural lipids. The cuticle layers surround the cortex, but the cortex contains the major part of the fiber mass. The cortex consists of spindle-shaped cells that are aligned parallel with the fiber axis. Cortical cells consist of both Type I and Type II keratins (IF proteins) and KAP proteins. Coarser hairs often contain one or more loosely packed porous regions called the medulla, located near the center of the fiber. The cell membrane complex, the “glue” that binds or holds all of the cells together, is a highly laminar structure consisting of both structural lipid and protein structures. Hair fibers grow in cycles consisting of three distinct stages called anagen (growth), catagen (transition) and telogen (rest). Each stage is controlled by molecular signals/regulators acting first on stem cells and then on the newly formed cells in the bulb and subsequently higher up in differentiation in the growing fiber. The effects and incidence of hair growth and hair loss (normal and diseased) for both males and females are described in detail. Molecular structures controlling hair fiber curvature (whether a fiber is straight or curly) and the effects of the different structural units of the fiber on stress–strain and swelling behavior are described in detail.


Hair Loss Hair Growth Human Hair Scalp Hair Wool Fiber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Barnett RJ, Seligman AM (1952) Histochemical demonstration of keratin bound sulfhydryl groups. Science 116:323–327Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Randebrock R (1964) Neue erkenntnisse uber den morphologischen aufbau des menschlichen hares. J Soc Cosmet Chem 15:691–706Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bogaty HJ (1969) Differences between adult and children’s hair. J Soc Cosmet Chem 20:159–171Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Garn SM (1948) Human hair: its anatomy, growth and distribution. PhD Thesis, Harvard University, p 180Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tolgyesi E et al (1983) A comparative study of beard and scalp hair. J Soc Cosmet Chem 34:361–368Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yin NE et al (1977) The effect of fiber diameter on the cosmetic aspects of hair. J Soc Cosmet Chem 28:139–150Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    DeBerker DAR et al (2004) Disorders of Hair, In: T Burns et al. (eds) Rooks textbook of dermatology, 7th edn. Blackwell Science Ltd, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Andl T et al (2002) Wnt signals are required for the initiation of hair follicle development. Dev Cell 2:643–653PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    St-Jacques B, Daddule HR, Karavanova I et al (1998) Sonic hedgehog signaling is essential for hair development. Curr Biol 8:1058–1068PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rusting RL (2001) Hair why it grows; why it stops. Sci Am 284(6):71–79Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jamora C, Fuchs E et al (2003) Links between signal transduction, transcription and adhesion in epithelial bud development. Nature 422:317–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Alonso L, Fuchs E (2006) The hair cycle. J Cell Sci 119:391–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Paus R, Cotsarelis G (1999) The biology of hair follicles. N Engl J Med 341(7):491–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mill P et al (2003) Sonic hedgehog dependent activation of Gli2 is essential for embryonic hair follicle development. Genes Dev 17:282–294PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lo Celso C et al (2004) Transient activation of β-catenin signaling in adult mouse epidermis is sufficient to induce new hair follicles but continuous activation is required to maintain hair follicle tumors. Development 131:1787–1799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pierard-Franchimont C et al (2003) The hair eclipse phenomenon sharpening the focus on the hair cycle chronobiology. Int J Cosmet Sci 25:295–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kishimoto J et al (2000) Wnt signaling maintains the hair-inducing activity of the dermal papilla. Genes Dev 14:1181–1185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Callahan CA et al (2004) MIM/BEG4 a sonic hedgehog-responsive gene that potentiates Gli-dependent transcription. Genes Dev 18:2724–2729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Alonso L et al (2005) Sgk3 links growth factor signaling to maintenance of progenitor cells in the hair follicle. J Cell Biol 170:559–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ma L et al (2003) Cyclic alopecia in Msx2 mutants: defects in hair cycling and hair shaft differentiation. Development 130:379–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhu AJ et al (1999) Signaling via B1 integrins and mitogen-activated protein kinase determines human epidermal stem cell fate in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:6728–6733PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lin M-H et al (2000) Activation of the notch pathways in the hair cortex leads to aberrant differentiation of the adjacent hair shaft layers. Development 127:2421–2432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Piper LPS (1966) A mechanism of attachment between the cortex and cuticle of mammalian hairs. J Textile Inst 57:T185–T190Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kulessa H et al (2000) Inhibition of the Bmp signaling affects growth and differentiation in the anagen hair follicle. EMBO J 19:6664–6667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    DasGupta R, Fuchs E (1999) Multiple roles for activated LEF/TCF transcription complexes during hair follicle development and differentiation. Development 126:4457–4568Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rogers GE (2004) Hair follicle differentiation and regulation. Int J Dev Biol 48:163–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Trotter M, Dawson HL (1934) The hair of French Canadians. Am J Phys Anthropol 18:443–456Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Pecoraro V et al (1964) Cycle of the scalp hair of the new born child. J Invest Dermatol 43:145–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Robbins C, Robbins MG (2003) Scalp hair length. I. Hair length in Florida theme parks: an approximation of hair length in the United States of America. J Cosmet Sci 54:53–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Robbins C, Robbins MG (2003) Scalp hair length. II. Estimating the percentages of adults in the USA and larger populations by hair length. J Cosmet Sci 54:367–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Barman JM et al (1965) The normal trichogram of the adult. J Invest Dermatol 44:233–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Loussouarn G (2001) African hair growth parameters. Br J Dermatol 145:294–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sperling LC (1999) Hair density in African-Americans. Arch Dermatol 135:656–658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Whiting DA (1993) Diagnostic and predictive value of horizontal sections of scalp biopsy. Specimens in male pattern androgenetic alopecia. J Am Acad Dermatol 28:755–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Loussouarn G, el Rawadi C, Genain G (2005) Diversity of hair growth profiles. Int J Dermatol 44(suppl 1):6–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lee HJ et al (2002) Hair counts from scalp biopsy specimens in Asians. J Am Acad Dermatol 46:218–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lynfield YL (1960) Effect of pregnancy on the human hair cycle. J Invest Dermatol 35:323–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Randall VA, Ebling FJG (1991) Seasonal changes in human hair growth. Br J Dermatol 124:146–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Courtois M et al (1994) Hair cycle and alopecia. Skin Pharmacol 7:84–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Courtois M et al (1995) Aging and hair cycles. Br J Dermatol 132:86–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Norwood NO (1975) Male pattern baldness: Classification and incidence. Southern Med J 68(1):1359–1365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Paik J-H et al (2001) The prevalence and types of androgenetic alopecia in Korean men and women. Br J Dermatol 145:95–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Xu F et al (2009) Prevalence and types of androgenetic alopecia in Shanghai, China: a community based study. Br J Dermatol 160:629–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hamilton JB (1951) Patterned loss of hair in man: types and incidence. NY Acad Sci 53:708–728Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Setty LR (1951) Hair patterns of the scalp of white and Negro males. Am J Phys Anthropol 33:49–51Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Birch MP, Messenger JF, Messenger AG (2001) Hair density, hair diameter and the prevalence of female pattern hair loss. Br J Dermatol 144:297–304PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ludwig E (1977) Classification on the types of androgenetic alopecia (common baldness) occurring in the female sex. Br J Derematol 97:247–253Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Norwood OT (2001) Incidence of female androgenetic alopecia (female pattern alopecia). Dermatol Surg 27:53–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pecoraro V, Astore I, Barman JM (1964) The normal trichogram in the child before the age of puberty. J Invest Dermatol 42:427–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Barman JM, Astore I, Pecoraro V (1965) The normal trichogram of the adult. J Invest Dermatol 44:233–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Robbins CR, Dawson TL Jr et al. Br J Dermatol, in pressGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tajima M et al (2007) Characteristic features of Japanese women’s hair with aging and with progressing hair loss. J Dermatol Soc 45:93–103Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rushton DH et al (1990) Biochemical and trichological characterization of diffuse alopecia in women. Br J Dermatol 123:187–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Otsuka H, Nemoto T (1988) Study on Japanese hair. Koshokaishi 12:192–197Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pecoraro V, Barman JM, Astore I (1969) The normal trichogram of pregnant women. In: Montagna, Dobson (eds) Advances in biology of skin, vol 9. Pergamon Press, London, pp 203–210Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nissimov J, Elchalal U (2003) Scalp hair diameter increases during pregnancy. Clin Exp Dermatol 28:525–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hutchinson PE, Thompson JR (1997) The cross-sectional size and shape of human terminal scalp hair. Br J Dermatol 136:159–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ohnemus U (2006) The hair follicle as an estrogen target and source. Endocr Rev 27(6):677–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hamilton JB (1942) Male hormone stimulation is prerequisite and incitant in common baldness. Am J Anat 71:451–480Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Orentreich N (1967) Scalp Hair Regeneration in Man, In: Montagna W, Dobson R (eds) Hair growth. Advances in biology of the skin, vol 9. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 99–108Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Schumacher-Stock U (1981) Estrogen Treatment of Hair Diseases, In: Orfanos CE, Montagna W, Stuttgen G (eds) Hair research. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 318–321Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Liang T et al (1985) Species differences in prostatic steroid 5 α-reductases of rat, dog and human. Endocrinology 117:571–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Brooks JR et al (1986) 5 α-reductase inhibitory and anti-androgenic activities of some 4-azasteroids in the rat. Steroids 47:1–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rhodes L et al (1994) The effects of finasteride (Proscar) on hair growth, hair cycle stage and serum testosterone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 79:991–996PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Dallob AL et al (1994) The effect of finasteride a 5 α-reductase inhibitor on scalp skin testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations in patients with male pattern baldness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 79:703–706PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sung YK et al (2006) Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) inducible DICKKOPF 1 from scalp dermal papilla cells causes apoptosis in follicular keratinocytes. Dermatology 213:58. From: Abstracts of the European Hair Res Soc 12th Annual MeetingGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Reddy J et al (2004) Expression of frizzled genes in developing and postnatal hair follicles. J Invest Dermatol 123:275–282PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Oshima I et al (2001) Morphogenesis and renewal of hair follicles from adult multipotent stem cells. Cell 104:233–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Barth JH et al (1988) Alopecia and hirsuites. Current concepts in pathogenesis and management. Drugs 35:83–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Sawaya M et al (1988) Δ5-3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in sebaceous glands of scalp in male pattern baldness. J Invest Dermatol 91:101–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Griffin JE, Leshin M, Wilson JD (1982) Androgen resistance syndromes. Am J Physiol 243:81–87Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Guyton AC (1971) Textbook of medical physiology, 4th edn. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, pp 950–951Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    King WJ, Greene GL (1984) Monoclonal antibodies localize oestrogen receptor in the nuclei of target cells. Nature 307:745–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Welshons WV, Lieberman M, Gorski J (1984) Nuclear localization of unoccupied oestrogen receptors. Nature 307:747–749PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sawaya M et al (1989) Increased androgen binding capacity in sebaceous glands in scalp of male pattern baldness. J Invest Dermatol 92:91–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Orentreich N (1959) Autografts in alopecias and other selected dermatological conditions. Ann NY Acad Sci 83:463–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Hamilton JB et al (1967) Hair growth. In: Montagna, Dobson (eds) Advances in biology of skin, vol 9. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 143–145Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hamilton JB (1958). In: Montagna, Ellis (eds) The biology of hair growth. Academic Press, New York, pp 418–419Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wollina U, Knopf B (1992) Psoriasis capitis: a histochemical approach with particular emphasis on skin appendages. Eur J Dermatol 2:520–525Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Philpott MP, Kealey T (1994) Effects of EGF on the morphology and patterns of DNA synthesis in isolated human hair follicles. J Invest Dermatol 102:186–191PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mackenzie IC (1994) Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in the development and maintenance of epithelial tissue. In: Leigh IM, Lane EB, Watt FM (eds) Keratinocyte handbook. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 243–296Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hebert JM et al (1994) FGF5 as a regulator of the hair growth cycle: evidence from targeted and spontaneous mutations. Cell 78:1017–1025PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Stenn KS et al (1994) Expression of the bcl-2 protooncogene in the cycling adult mouse hair follicle. J Invest Dermatol 103:107–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Blumberg M, Tonnic-Canic M (1997) Human epidermal-keratinocyte: Keratinization processes. In: Jolles P, Zahn H, Hocker H (eds) Formation and structure of human hair. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, pp 1–30Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Reis PJ (1989) The Influence of Absorbed Nutrients on Wool Growth, In: Rogers G, Reis P, Ward K, Marshall R (eds) The biology of wool and hair. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 185–201Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Montagna W, Ellis RA (1967) Hair Growth. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Mercer EH (1961). In: Alexander P, Bacq F (eds) Keratins and keratinization, International Series of Monographs on Pure and Applied Biology, vol 12. Pergamon Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Millar SE (2002) Molecular mechanisms regulating hair follicle development. J Invest Dermatol 118:216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Powell BC, Rogers GE (1997) The role of keratin proteins and their genes in the growth, structure and properties of hair. In: Jolles P, Zahn H, Hocker H (eds) Formation and structure of human hair. Berkhauser Verlag, Basel, pp 59–148Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ohyama M, Vogel JC (2003) Gene delivery to the hair follicle. J Invest Dermatol Symp Proc 8:204–206Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ellis JA, Stebbing M, Harrap SB (2001) Polymorphism of the androgen receptor gene is associated with male pattern baldness. J Invest Dermatol 116:452–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Panteleyev V et al (1999) The role of the hairless (hr) gene in the regulation of hair follicle catagen formation. Am J Pathol 155(1):159–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ahmed W, Christiano AM et al (1998) Alopecia universalis associated with a mutation in the human hairless gene. Science 279(5351):720–724Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Shiell RC, Norwood OT (1984). In: Shiell Norwood O’Tar (ed) Hair transplant surgery, 2nd edn. C.C. Thomas Publ., Springfield, IL, pp 328–333Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bouhanna P (1984) The post-auricular vertical hair bearing transposition flap. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 10(7):551–554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Reynolds AJ, Jahoda CA et al (1999) Trans-gender induction of hair follicles. Nature 402:33–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Unger WP (2005) Hair transplantation: current concepts and techniques. J Invest Dermatol 10:225–229Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Geiger W (1944) Scale substance of wool. Textile Res J 14:82–85Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Harris M, Smith A (1936) Oxidation of wool: alkali-solubility test for determining the extent of oxidation. J Res Natl Bur Stand 17:577Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Leeder JD, Bradbury JH (1968) Confirmation of epicuticle on keratin fibers. Nature 218:694–695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hock CW et al (1941) Microscopic structure of the wool fiber. J Res Natl Bur Stand 27:181–190Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Holmes AW (1964) Degradation of human hair by papain: part I. The pattern of degradation. Textile Res J 34:706–712Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Wortmann FJ et al (1982) A method for isolating the cortex of keratin fibers. Textile Res J 52:479–481Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Atsuta C, Fukumashi A, Fukuda M (1995) Mechanism of isolation of human hair cuticle with KOH/1-butanol solutions. J Soc Cosmet Chem 46:281–290Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Takahashi T, Hayashi R, Okamoto M, Inoue S (2006) Morphology and properties of Asian and Caucasian hair. J Cosmet Sci 57:327–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hardy D (1973) Quantitative hair form variation in seven populations. Am J Phys Anthrop 39:7–18Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Swift JA (1999) Human hair cuticle: biologically conspired to the owner’s advantage. J Cosmet Sci 50:23–48Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Woods JL, Orwin DFG (1982) The cytology of cuticle scale formation in the wool fiber. J Ultrastruct Res 80:230–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Garcia ML et al (1978) Normal cuticle wear patterns in human hair. J Soc Cosmet Chem 29:155–175, and references thereinGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Bradbury JH et al (1966) Separation of chemically unmodified histological components of keratin fibers and analyses of cuticles. Nature 210:1333–1334Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Blout ER et al (1960) Dependence of the conformation of synthetic polypeptides on amino acid composition. J Am Chem Soc 82:3787–3789Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Astbury WT, Street A (1931) X-ray studies of the structures of hair, wool and related fibers. I. General. Phil Trans Roy Soc Ser A 230:75–101Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Langermalm G, Philip B (1950) The action of alkali on the epicuticle of wool. Textile Res J 20:668–670Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Swift JA, Holmes AW (1965) Degradation of human hair by papain: part III: some electron microscope observations. Textile Res J 35:1014–1019Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Swift JA, Smith S (2001) Microscopical investigations on the epicuticle of mammalian keratin fibers. J Microsc 204:203–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Zahn H et al (1994) Covalently linked fatty acids at the surface of wool: part of the cuticle cell envelope. Textile Res J 64:554–555Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Swift JA, Bews B (1976) The chemistry of human hair cuticle: part 3: the isolation and amino acid analysis of various sub-fractions of the cuticle obtained by pronase and trypsin digestion. J Cosmet Sci 27:289–300Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Swift JA (1997) Morphology and histochemistry of human hair. In: Jolles C, Zahn C, Hocker C (eds) Formation and structure of human hair. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, pp 164–168Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Swift J, Bews B (1974) The chemistry of human hair cuticle: II: the isolation and amino acid analysis of the cell membranes and A-layer. J Soc Cosmet Chem 25:355–366Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Swift J, Bews B (1974) The chemistry of human hair cuticle: part I: a new method for the physical isolation of cuticle. J Soc Cosmet Chem 25:13–22Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Hunter L et al (1974) Observation of the internal structure of the human hair cuticle cell by SEM. Textile Res J 44:136–140Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Negri A, Cornell H, Rivett D (1993) A model for the surface of keratin fibers. Textile Res J 63:109–115Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Negri Andrew et al (1996) A transmission electron microscope study of covalently bound fatty acids in the cell membranes of wool fibers. Textile Res J 66:491–495Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Fraser RDB et al (1972) Keratins, their composition, structure, and biosynthesis, vol 4. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, ILGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Jones LN, Rivett DE (1997) The role of 18-methyleicosanoic acid in the structure and formation of mammalian hair fibers. Micron 28:469–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Allworden KZ (1916) Die eigenshaften der schafwolle and eine neue untersuchungsmethode zum nachweiss geschadiger wolle auf chemischen wege. Angew Chem 29:77–78Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Alexander P, Hudson RF, Earland C (1963) Wool, its chemistry and physics. Franklin Publishing Co., New Jersey, pp 7–8Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Leeder JD et al (1983) Internal lipids of wool fibers. Textile Res J 53:402–407Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lindberg J et al (1948) Occurrence of thin membranes in the structure of wool. Nature 162:458–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Holmes AW (1961) A fatty acid/protein complex in human hair. Nature 189:923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Holmes AW (1964) Degradation of human hair by papain: II: experiments in the isolation and identification of the protective substance. Textile Res J 34:777–782Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Allen A et al (1985) Evidence for lipid and filamentous protein in Allworden membrane. 7th IWTRC Tokyo, vol I, pp 143–151Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Zahn H, Wortmann F-J, Hocker H (2005) Considerations on the occurrence of loricrin and involucrin in the cell envelope of wool cuticle cells. Int J Sheep Wool Sci 53:1–14Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Rogers GE, Koike K (2009) Laser capture microscopy in a study of expression of structural proteins in the cuticle cells of human hair. Exp Dermatol 18:541–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Leeder JD, Rippon JA (1985) Changes induced in the properties of wool by specific epicuticle modification. J Soc Dyers Colourists 101:11–16Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ward RJ et al (1993) Surface analysis of wool by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and static secondary ion mass spectrometry. Textile Res J 63:362–368Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Robbins CR, Bahl M (1984) Analysis of hair by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. J Soc Cosmet Chem 35:379–390Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Beard B et al (2005) Electron spectroscopy and microscopy applied to chemical and structural analysis of hair. J Cosmet Sci 56:65–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Carr CM, Lever IH, Hughes AE (1986) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study of the wool fiber surface. Textile Res J 56:457–461Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Capablanca JS, Watt IC (1986) Factors affecting the zeta potential at wool fiber surfaces. Textile Res J 56:49–55Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Swift JA (1997) Morphology and histochemistry of human hair. In: Jolles P, Zahn H, Hocker H (eds) Formation and structure of human hair. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, p 167Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Kreplak L et al (2001) Investigation of human hair cuticle structure by microdiffraction: direct observation of cell membrane complex swelling. Biochim Biophys Acta 1547(2):268–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ohta N et al (2005) Structural analysis of human hair in aqueous solutions using microbeam X-ray diffraction. J Appl Cryst 38:274–279Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Natarajan U, Robbins CR (2010) The thickness of 18-MEA on an ultra-high-sulfur-protein surface by molecular modeling. J Cosmet Sci 61(6):467–477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Mercer EH (1953) The heterogeneity of the keratin fibers. Textile Res J 23:388–397Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Kassenbeck P (1981). In: Orfanos CE, Montagna W, Stuttgen G (eds) Hair research. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 52–64Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Mowat I et al (1982) Crimp, amino acid composition and the proportion of orthocortical, paracortical and mesocortical cells. J Textile Inst 73:246–248Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Leon NH (1972) Structural aspects of keratin fibers. J Soc Cosmet Chem 23:427–445Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Swift JA (1997) Morphology and histochemistry of human hair. In: Jolles P, Zahn H, Hocker H (eds) Formation and structure of human hair. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, p 171Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Thibaut S et al (2007) Human hair keratin network and curvature. Int J Dermatol 46(suppl 1):7–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Bryson WG et al (2009) Cortical cell types and intermediate filament arrangements correlate with fiber curvature in Japanese human hair. J Struct Biol 166:46–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Gjesdal F (1959) Investigation on the melanin granules with special consideration of the hair pigment. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand 133:1–112Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Birbeck MSC, Mercer EH (1956) The electron microscopy of the human hair follicle. I: introduction and the hair cortex. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 3:203–214Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Piper LPS (1966) A mechanism of attachment between the cuticle and cortex of mammalian hair. J Text Inst 57:T185–T190Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Bradbury JH, Chapman GV, King NLR (1965) The composition of wool. III. analysis of cuticle, skin flakes and cell membrane. Proceedings of the 3rd international wool textile research conference, Paris, vol I, p 359Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Menkart J, Wolfram LJ, Mao I (1966) Caucasian hair, negro hair and wool: similarities and differences. J Soc Cosmet Chem 17:769–787Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Hailwood AJ, Horrobein S (1946) Absorption of water by polymers. Analysis in terms of a simple model. Trans Faraday Soc 42B:84–99Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Gillespie JM et al (1964) The isolation and properties of soluble proteins from wool. Aust J Biol Sci 17:548–560Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Alexander P, Earland C (1950) Structure of wool fibers: isolation of an alpha and beta protein in wool. Nature 166:396–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Corfield MC et al (1958) The amino acid composition of three fractions from oxidized wool. Biochem J 68:348–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Filshie BK, Rogers GE (1964) The fine structure of alpha keratins. J Mol Biol 3:784–786Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Bendit EG, Feughelman M (1968) Encyclopedia of polymer science and technology, vol 8. Wiley, New York, p 1Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Baily CJ et al (1965). Proceedings of the 3rd international wool textile research conference, Paris, vol I, p 121Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Spei M (1975) Fifth international wool textile research conference, Aachen II, p 90Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Rogers MA et al (2001) Characterization of a cluster of human high/ultrahigh sulfur keratin associated protein (KAP) genes imbedded in the type I keratin gene domain on chromosome 17q12-21. J Biol Chem 276:19440–19451PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Johnson DJ, Sikorski J (1965). Proceedings of the 3rd international wool textile research conference, Paris, vol I, p 53Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Crewther WG et al (1983) Structure of intermediate filaments. Int J Biol Macromol 5:267–274Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Fraser RBD et al (1988) Disulfide bonding in α-keratin. Int J Biol Macromol 10:106–112Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Fraser RDB, MacRae TP, Rogers GE (1962) Molecular organization in alpha-keratin. Nature 193:1052–1055PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Er Rafik M, Doucet J, Briki F (2004) The intermediate filament architecture as determined by X-ray diffraction modeling of hard alpha keratin. Biophys J 86:3893–3904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Langbein L et al (1999) The catalog of human hair keratins. I: expression of the nine type I members in the hair follicle. J Biol Chem 274:19874–19884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Langbein L et al (2001) The catalog of human hair keratins. II: expression of the six type II members in the hair follicle and the combined catalog of human type I and II keratins. J Biol Chem 276:35123–35132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Fraser RDB, Parry DAD (2007) Structural changes in the trichocyte intermediate filaments accompanying the transition from the reduced to the oxidized form. J Struct Biol 159:36–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Fraser RDB et al (1986) Intermediate filaments in α-keratins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:1179–1183PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Pauling L, Corey RB (1950) Two hydrogen-bonded spiral configurations of the polypeptide chain. J Am Chem Soc 72:5349Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Pauling L, Corey RB (1951) The structure of hair, muscle and related proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 37:261–271Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Pauling L, Corey RB (1954) The structure of protein molecules. Sci Am 191:51–59Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Astbury WT, Sisson WA (1935) X-ray studies of the structures of hair, wool and related fibers. III: the configuration of the keratin molecule and its orientations in the biological cell, Phil Trans Roy Soc Ser A 150:533–551Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Astbury WT (1933) Some problems in the X-ray analysis of the structure of animal hairs and other protein fibers. Trans Faraday Soc 29:193–211Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Astbury WT, Woods HJ (1934) X-ray studies of the structure of hair, wool and related fibers. II: the molecular structure and elastic properties of hair keratin. Phil Trans Roy Soc Ser A 232:333–394Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    MacArthur I (1943) Structure of α-keratin. Nature 152:38Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    MacArthur I (1946) Symposium on fibrous proteins. Society Dyers Colourists, pp 5–14 and references thereinGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Pauling L, Corey RB (1953) Compound helical configurations of polypeptide chains: structure of proteins of the α-helical type. Nature 171:59–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Fraser RDB et al (1965). Proceedings of the 3rd international wool textile research conference, Paris, vol I, p 6Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Corey RB, Pauling L (1953) Molecular models of amino acids, peptides and proteins. Rev Sci Instr 24:621–627Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Crick FHC (1952) Is α-keratin a coiled coil? Nature 170:882–883PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Swift JA (1992) Swelling of human hair by water. Proceedings of the 8th international hair science symposium of the DWI, Kiel, Germany, 9–11 Sept 1992Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Feughelman M (1982) The physical properties of alpha-keratin fibers. J Soc Cosmet Chem 33:385–406Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Feughelman M (1959) A two phase structure for keratin fibers. Textile Res J 29:223–228Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Feughelman M (1994) A model for the mechanical properties of the alpha-keratin cortex. Textile Res J 64:236–239Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Bendit EG (1960) A quantitative X-ray diffraction study of the alpha-beta transformation in wool keratin. Textile Res J 30:547–555Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Hearle JWS (2000) A critical review of the structural mechanics of wool and hair fibers. Int J Biol Macromol 27:123–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Chapman BM (1969) A mechanical model for wool and other keratin fibers. Textile Res J 39:1102–1109Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Wortmann F-J, Zahn H (1994) The stress/strain curve of α-keratin fibers and the structure of the intermediate filament. Textile Res J 64:737–743Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Kreplak L et al (2002) A new deformation model of hard alpha-keratin fibers at the nanometer scale: implications for hard alpha keratin intermediate filament mechanical properties. Biophys J 82:2265–2274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Feughelman M, Haly AR (1960) The mechanical properties of wool keratin and its molecular configuration. Kolloid Z 168:107–115Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Cao J (2000) Is the α-β transition of keratin a transition of α-helices to β-pleated sheets? part I: in situ XRD studies. J Mol Struct 553:101–107Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Cao J (2002) Is the α-β transition of keratin a transition of α-helices to β-pleated sheets? Synchrotron investigation for stretched single specimens. J Mol Struct 607:69–75Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Kreplak L et al (2004) New aspects of the α-helix to β-sheet transition in stretched haird α-keratin fibers. Biophys J 87:640–647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Kamath YK, Weigmann H-D (1982) Fractography of human hair. J Appl Polym Sci 27:3809–3833Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Brown AC, Swift JA (1975) Hair breakage: the scanning electron microscope as a diagnostic tool. J Soc Cosmet Sci 26:289–299Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Feughelman M (1997) Mechanical properties and structure of α-keratin fibres: wool, human hair and related fibres. UNSW Press, Kensington, pp 144–147Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Robbins CR (2009) The cell membrane complex: three related but different cellular cohesion components of mammalian hair fibers. J Cosmet Sci 60:437–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Robbins CR, Fernee KM (1983) Some observations on the swelling of human epidermal membrane. J Soc Cosmet Chem 34:21–34Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Rogers GE (1964) Structural and Biochemical Features of the Hair Follicle, In: Montagna W, Ellis RA (eds) The epidermis. Academic Press, New York, p 205Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Stam R et al (1952) The swelling of human hair in water and water vapor. Textile Res J 22:448–465Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Spei M, Zahn H (1979) Small angle X-ray examination of swollen keratin fibers. Melliand Textilber 60(7):523–527Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Mercer EH (1961) International series of monographs on pure and applied biology. In: Alexander P, Bacq F (eds) Keratins and keratinization, vol 12. Pergamon Press, New York, p 156Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Lindelof B et al (1988) Human hair form. Morphology revealed by light and scanning electron microscopy and computer aided three dimensional reconstruction. Arch Dermatol 124:1359–1363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Orwin DFG (1989) Variations in Wool Fiber Morphology, In: Rogers GE, Reis PJ, Ward KA, Marshall RC (eds) The biology of wool and hair. Chapman and Hall, London, p 229Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Mercer EH (1953) The heterogeneity of keratin fibers. Textile Res J 23:387–394Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Rogers GE (1959) Electron microscopy of wool. J Ultrastruct Res 2:309–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Kaplin IJ, Whiteley KJ (1978) An electron microscope study of fibril: matrix arrangements in high and low crimp wool fibers. Aust J Biol Sci 31:231–240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Powell B, Rogers GE (1997). In: Jolles P, Zahn H, Hocker H (eds) Formation and structure of human hair. Birkhauser Verlag, Berlin, pp 84–88Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Leeder JD et al (1998) A report for the rural industries research and development corp, pp 15–17Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Orwin DFG et al (1984) Cortical cell types and their distribution in wool fibers. Aust J Biol Sci 37:237–255Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Horio M, Kondo T (1953) Crimping of wool fibers. Text Res J 23:373–386Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Fraser RDB, Rogers GE (1955) The bilateral structure of wool cortex and its relation to crimp. Aust J Biol Sci 8:288–299Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Campbell ME et al (1975) Influence of nutrition on the crimping rate of wool and the type and proportion of constituent proteins. Aust J Biol Sci 28:389–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Caldwell JP (2005) The three dimensional arrangement of intermediate filaments in Romney wool cortical cells. J Struct Biol 151:298–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Plowman JE et al (2007) The differential expression of proteins in the cortical cells of wool and hair fibers. Exp Dermatol 16:707–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Kajiura Y et al (2006) Structural analysis of human hair single fibers by scanning microbeam SAXS. J Struct Biol 155(3):438–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Fraser RDB, MacRae TP, Rogers GE (1972) Keratins, their composition, structure, and biosynthesis. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL, pp 70–75Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Marshall RC, Orwin DFG, Gillespie J (1991) Structure and biochemistry of mammalian hard keratin. Electron Microsc Rev 4:47–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Fratini A, Powell BC, Rogers GE (1993) Sequence, expression and evolutionary conservation of a gene encoding a glycine-tyrosine rich keratin associated protein of hair. J Biol Chem 268:4511–4518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Nagase S et al (2008) Characterization of curved hair of Japanese women with reference to internal structures and amino acid composition. J Cosmet Sci 59:317–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Jones LM et al (1990) Elemental distribution in keratin fiber/follicle sections. Proceedings of the 8th international wool textile research conference, Christchurch, NZ, vol 1, pp 246–255Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Thibaut S et al (2005) Human hair shape is programmed from the bulb. Br J Dermatol 152(4):632–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Rogers GE (1959) Electron microscope studies of hair and wool. Ann NY Acad Sci 83:378–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Jones LN et al (1997) Wool and related mammalian fibers. In: Pearse EM, Lewin M (eds) Handbook of fiber science and technology. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 355–413Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Jones LN (1994) Surface membranes in developing mammalian hair follicles. J Invest Dermatol 102:559Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Swift JA (1997) Morphology and Histochemistry of Human Hair, In: Jolles P, Zahn H, Hocker H (eds) Formation and structure of human hair. Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, p 167Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Nakamura Y et al (1975) Electrokinetic studies on the surface structure of wool fiber. Proceedings of the 5th IWTRC, Aachen, vol 5, p 34Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Jones LN, Rivett DE (1995) Effects of branched chain 3-oxo acid dehydrogenase deficiency on hair in maple syrup urine disease. J Invest Dermatol 104:688Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Evans DJ, Lanczki M (1997) Cleavage of integral surface lipids of wool by aminolysis. Textile Res J 67:435–444Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Bradbury JH, Leeder JD (1972) Keratin fibers. V: mechanism of the Allworden reaction. Aust J Biol Sci 25:133–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Lindberg J (1949) Allworden’s reaction. Textile Res J 19:43–45Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Lindberg J et al (1949) The fine histology of the keratin fibers. Textile Res J 19:673–677Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Leeder JD, Rippon JA (1985) Changes induced in the properties of wool by specific epicuticle modification. J Soc Dyers Colour 101:11–16Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Weitkamp AW (1945) The acidic constituents of degras. A new method of structural elucidation. J Am Chem Soc 67:447–454Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Evans D J, Leeder JD, Rippon JA, Rivett DE (1985) Separation and analysis of the surface lipids of wool fiber. Proceedings of the 7th IWTRC, Tokyo, vol 1, pp 135–142Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Korner A, Wortmann G (2005) Isolation of 18-MEA containing proteolipids from wool fiber cuticle. Proceedings of the 32nd Aachen textile conference, 23–24 Nov 2005Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Jones LN et al (1996) Hair from patients with maple syrup urine disease show a structural defect in the fiber cuticle. J Invest Dermatol 106:461–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Harper P (1989) Maple syrup urine disease in calves: a clinical, pathological and biochemical study. Aust Veterinary Journal 66:46–49Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Prottey C, Ferguson TFM (1972) Measurements of lipid synthesis in mouse auricular skin cultured in vitro. Br J Dermatol 87:475–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Lagermalm G (1954) Structural details of the surface layers of wool. Textile Res J 24:17–25Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    Leeder JD, Bradbury JH (1971) The discontinuous nature of epicuticle on the surface of keratin fibers. Textile Res J 41:563–568Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    Hohl D et al (1991) Characterization of human loricrin, structure and function of a new class of epidermal cell envelope proteins. J Biol Chem 266:6626–6636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Eckert RL, Green H (1986) Structure and evolution of the human involucrin gene. Cell 46:583–589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Marvin KW et al (1992) Cornifin a cross linked envelope precursor in keratinocytes that is down regulated by retinoids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:11026–11030PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Tezuka T, Takahashi M (1987) The cystine-rich envelope protein from human epidermal stratum corneum cells. J Invest Dermatol 88(1):47–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Steinert PM, Marekov LN (1995) The proteins elafin, filaggrin, keratin intermediate filaments, loricrin and small proline-rich proteins 1 and 2 are isodipeptide cross-linked components of human epidermal cornified cell envelope. J Biol Chem 270:17702–17711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Jarnik M, Simon MN, Steven AC (1998) Cornified cell envelope assembly: a model based on electron microscopic determinations. J Cell Sci 111:1051–1060PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Steven AC, Steinert PM (1994) Protein composition of the cornified cell envelopes of epidermal keratinocytes. J Cell Sci 107:693–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Robbins C et al (2004) Failure of intercellular adhesion in hair fibers with regard to hair condition and strain conditions. J Cosmet Sci 55:351–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Gamez-Garcia M (1998) Cuticle decementation and cuticle buckling produced by Poisson contraction on the cuticular envelope of human hair. J Cosmet Sci 49:213–222Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Feughelman M, Willis BK (2001) Mechanical extension of human hair and the movement of the cuticle. J Cosmet Sci 52:185–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Wertz PW, Downing DT (1988) Integral lipids of human hair. Lipids 23:878–881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Wertz PW, Downing DT (1989) Integral lipids of mammalian hair. Comp Biochem Physiol B Comp Biochem 92b:759Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    Peet DJ (1992) A comparative study of covalently bound fatty acids in keratinized tissues. Comp Biochem Physiol 102B(2):363–366Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Mansour MP, Jones LN (1989) Morphological changes in wool after solvent extraction and treatments in hot aqueous solutions. Textile Res J 59:530–535Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Logan RI, Jones LN, Rivett DE (1990) Morphological changes in wool fibers after solvent extraction. Proceedings of the 8th IWTRC, vol I, pp 408–418Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Negri AP, Rankin DA, Nelson WG, Rivett DE (1996) A transmission electron microscope study of covalently bound fatty acids in the cell membranes of wool fibers. Textile Res J 66:491–495Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Allen AK, Ellis J, Rivett DE (1991) The presence of glycoproteins in the cell membrane complex of a variety of keratin fibers. Biochim Biophys Acta 1074:331–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Bryson WG, Herbert BR, Rankin DA, Krsinic GL (1995). Proceedings of the 9th IWTRC, Biella, Italy, pp 463–473Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Blaber M, Membranes and Structure of Membrane Proteins, General Biochem. Lecture 14,
  267. 267.
    Logan RI, Jones LN, Rivett DE (1990) Morphological changes in wool fibers after solvent extraction. In: Crawshaw GH (ed) Proceedings of the 8th IWTRC, vol I. Christchurch, NZ, pp 408–418Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Negri AP, Cornell HJ, Rivett DE (1991) The nature of covalently bound fatty acids in wool fibers. Aust J Agric Res 42:1285–1292Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    Kalkbrenner U et al (1990) Studies on the composition of the wool cuticle. Proceedings of the 8th IWTRC, Christchcurch, NZ, vol I, pp 398–407Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    Schwan A, Zahn H (1980) Investigations of the cell membrane complexes in wool and hair. Proceedings of the 6th IWTRC, Pretoria, vol 2, p 29Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Rivett DE (1991) Structural lipids of the wool fiber. Wool Sci Rev 67:1–25Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    Wertz PW et al (1986) Preparation of liposomes from stratum corneum lipids. J Invest Dermatol 87:582–584PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Korner A, Petrovic S, Hocker H (1995) Cell membrane lipids of wool and human hair. Textile Res J 65:56–58Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    Peters DE, Bradbury JH (1976) The chemical composition of wool. XV: the cell membrane complex. Aust J Biol Sci 29:43–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Leeder JD et al (1985) Use of the transmission electron microscope to study dyeing and diffusion processes. Proceedings of the 7th IWTRC, Tokyo, vol V, pp 99–108Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    Leeder JD, Marshall RC (1982) Readily extracted proteins from merino wool. Textile Res J 52:245–249Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    Inoue T et al (2007) Structural analysis of the cell membrane complex in the human hair cuticle using microbeam X-ray diffraction. Relationship with the effects of hair dyeing. J Cosmet Sci 58:11–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Orwin DFG et al (1973) Plasma membrane differentiations of keratinizing cells of the wool follicle. III: tight junctions. J Ultrastruct Res 45:30–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Jones LN, Horr TJ, Kaplin IJ (1994) Formation of surface membranes in developing mammalian hair follicles. Micron 24:589–595Google Scholar
  280. 280.
    Langbein L et al (2009) The keratins of the human hair medulla: the riddle in the middle. J Invest Dermatol 130:55–73Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Das-Chaudhuri AB, Chopra VP (1984) Variation in hair histological variables: medulla and diameter. Hum Hered 34:217–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Banerjee AR (1962) Variations in the medullary structure of human head hair. Proc Nat Inst Sci India 29(3):306–316Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    Wynkoop EM (1929) A study of the age correlations of the cuticular scales, medulla and shaft diameters of human head hair. Am J Phys Anthropol XIII 13(2):177–188Google Scholar
  284. 284.
    Mahrle G, Orfanos CE (1971) Das spongiase keratin und die marksubstanzb des menschlichen kopfharres. Raster und transmission-elektronmikroskopishe untersuchungen. Arch Derm Res 241:305–316Google Scholar
  285. 285.
    Dedeurwaerden RA, Dobb MG, Sweetman BJ (1964) Selective extraction of a protein fraction from wool keratin. Nature 203:48–49Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    Nagase S et al (2002) Influence of internal structures of hair fibers on hair appearance. I: light scattering from the porous structures of the medulla of human hair. J Cosmet Sci 53:89–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Musso LA (1970) Pili annulati. Austral J Derm 11:67–75Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clarence Robbins Technical ConsultingClermontUSA

Personalised recommendations