Upper Extremity Nerves

  • Michaela Plaikner
  • Hannes Gruber
  • Werner Judmaier
  • Erich Brenner


The major nerves of the upper extremity include the axillary nerve, the musculocutaneous nerve, the medial brachial cutaneous nerve, the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve, the radial nerve, the ulnar nerve, and the median nerve. A basic knowledge of regional anatomy and topography of these nerves and their major branches is an essential prerequisite for sonographic examinations. By means of landmarks the respective nerve can be easily localized in specific sections of its course. In addition, certain locations exist, where these nerves traverse through narrow tunnels or along bony ridges (such as the carpal tunnel, the ulnar sulcus, or the radial groove). These regions are especially prone for nerve compression or injury and have distinct anatomical features, which must be known to constantly achieve high-quality sonographic diagnoses.


Median Nerve Carpal Tunnel Ulnar Nerve Radial Nerve Axillary Nerve 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michaela Plaikner
    • 1
  • Hannes Gruber
    • 1
  • Werner Judmaier
    • 1
  • Erich Brenner
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyInnsbruck Medical UniversityInnsbruckAustria
  2. 2.Division for Clinical and Functional AnatomyInnsbruck Medical UniversityInnsbruckAustria

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