Advertisement

Publicly Verifiable Secret Sharing for Cloud-Based Key Management

  • Roy D’Souza
  • David Jao
  • Ilya Mironov
  • Omkant Pandey
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7107)

Abstract

Running the key-management service of cryptographic systems in the cloud is an attractive cost saving proposition. Supporting key-recovery is an essential component of every key-management service. We observe that to verifiably support key-recovery in a public cloud, it is essential to use publicly verifiable secret-sharing (PVSS) schemes. In addition, a holistic approach to security must be taken by requiring that running the key-management service in the (untrusted) cloud does not violate the security of the cryptographic system at hand.

This paper takes such a holistic approach for the case of public-key encryption which is one of the most basic cryptographic tasks. The approach boils down to formalizing the security of public-key encryption in the presence of PVSS. We present such a formalization and observe that the PVSS scheme of Stadler [29] can be shown to satisfy our definition, albeit in the Random Oracle Model.

We construct a new scheme based on pairings which is much more efficient than Stadler’s scheme. Our scheme is noninteractive and can support any monotone access structure. In addition, it is proven secure in the standard model under the Bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) assumption. Interestingly, our PVSS scheme is actually the first non-interactive scheme proven secure in the standard model; all previous non-interactive PVSS schemes assume the existence of a Random Oracle. Our scheme is simple and efficient; an implementation of our scheme demonstrates that our scheme compares well with the current fastest known PVSS schemes.

Keywords

Leaf Node Encryption Scheme Secret Sharing Access Structure Random Oracle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Aranha, D.F., López, J., Hankerson, D.: High-Speed Parallel Software Implementation of the η T Pairing. In: Pieprzyk, J. (ed.) CT-RSA 2010. LNCS, vol. 5985, pp. 89–105. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beimel, A.: Secure Schemes for Secret Sharing and Key Distribution. PhD thesis, Israel Institute of Technology, Technion, Haifa, Israel (June 1996)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bellare, M., Goldwasser, S.: Verifiable partial key escrow. In: ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pp. 78–91 (1997)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bellare, M., Rogaway, P.: Random oracles are practical: A paradigm for designing efficient protocols. In: ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pp. 62–73 (1993)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blakley Jr., G.R.: Safeguarding cryptographic keys. In: AFIPS 1979, National Computer Conference, vol. 48, pp. 313–317 (1979)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boneh, D., Boyen, X.: Efficient Selective-ID Secure Identity-Based Encryption Without Random Oracles. In: Cachin, C., Camenisch, J.L. (eds.) EUROCRYPT 2004. LNCS, vol. 3027, pp. 223–238. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boneh, D., Franklin, M.: Identity-Based Encryption from the Weil Pairing. In: Kilian, J. (ed.) CRYPTO 2001. LNCS, vol. 2139, pp. 213–229. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boneh, D., Franklin, M.K.: Identity-based encryption from the Weil pairing. SIAM J. Comput. 32(3), 586–615 (2003); Ealier version in [7]Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chor, B., Goldwasser, S., Micali, S., Awerbuch, B.: Verifiable secret sharing and achieving simultaneity in the presence of faults (extended abstract). In: 26th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS), pp. 383–395. IEEE (1985)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Creeger, M.: Cloud computing: An overview. Queue 7, 2:3–2:4 (2009)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Feldman, P.: A practical scheme for non-interactive verifiable secret sharing. In: 28th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS), pp. 427–437. IEEE (1987)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    El Gamal, T.: A Public Key Cryptosystem and a Signature Scheme Based on Discrete Logarithms. In: Blakely, G.R., Chaum, D. (eds.) CRYPTO 1984. LNCS, vol. 196, pp. 10–18. Springer, Heidelberg (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Goldwasser, S., Micali, S.: Probabilistic encryption. J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 28(2), 270–299 (1984)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goyal, V., Pandey, O., Sahai, A., Waters, B.: Attribute-based encryption for fine-grained access control of encrypted data. In: Juels, A., Wright, R.N., De Capitani di Vimercati, S. (eds.) ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pp. 89–98. ACM (2006)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Joux, A.: A one round protocol for tripartite Diffie-Hellman. In: Bosma, W. (ed.) ANTS 2000. LNCS, vol. 1838, pp. 385–394. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Joux, A.: A one round protocol for tripartite Diffie-Hellman. J. Cryptology 17(4), 263–276 (2004); Earlier version in [15]MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Klien, M.: Six Benefits of Cloud Computing (2010), http://resource.onlinetech.com/the-six-benefits-of-cloud-computing/
  18. 18.
    Martin, L.: Federated Key Management for Secure Cloud Computing. Presentation by Voltage Security, Inc. (May 2010), http://storageconference.org/2010/Presentations/KMS/17.Martin.pdf
  19. 19.
    Micali, S.: Fair Public-Key Cryptosystems. In: Brickell, E.F. (ed.) CRYPTO 1992. LNCS, vol. 740, pp. 113–138. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Micali, S., Shamir, A.: Partial key-escrow (1996) (manuscript)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Escrowed encryption standard (EES). FIPS PUB 185, National Institute of Standards and Technology (February 1994)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    National Institute of Standards and Technology. NIST Special Publication 800-57: Recommendation for Key Management — Part 1: General (revised) (2007)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pedersen, T.P.: Non-Interactive and Information-Theoretic Secure Verifiable Secret Sharing. In: Feigenbaum, J. (ed.) CRYPTO 1991. LNCS, vol. 576, pp. 129–140. Springer, Heidelberg (1992)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sahai, A., Waters, B.: Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption. In: Cramer, R. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2005. LNCS, vol. 3494, pp. 457–473. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schoenmakers, B.: A Simple Publicly Verifiable Secret Sharing Scheme and Its Application to Electronic Voting. In: Wiener, M. (ed.) CRYPTO 1999. LNCS, vol. 1666, pp. 148–164. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Scott, M.: MIRACL—A Multiprecision Integer and Rational Arithmetic C/C++ Library. Shamus Software Ltd, Dublin, Ireland (2010), http://www.shamus.ie/
  27. 27.
    Shamir, A.: How to share a secret. Commun. ACM 22(11), 612–613 (1979)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shoup, V.: Encryption algorithms—part 2: Asymmetric ciphers. Final Committee Draft 18033-2, ISO/IEC (December 2004), http://www.shoup.net/iso/std6.pdf
  29. 29.
    Stadler, M.: Publicly Verifiable Secret Sharing. In: Maurer, U.M. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1996. LNCS, vol. 1070, pp. 190–199. Springer, Heidelberg (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roy D’Souza
    • 1
  • David Jao
    • 2
  • Ilya Mironov
    • 1
    • 3
  • Omkant Pandey
    • 1
  1. 1.Microsoft CorporationRedmondUSA
  2. 2.University of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  3. 3.Microsoft Research Silicon Valley CenterMountain ViewUSA

Personalised recommendations