Craton Mantle Formation and Structure of Eastern Finland Mantle: Evidence from Kimberlite-Derived Mantle Xenoliths, Xenocrysts and Diamonds

  • Hugh O’BrienEmail author
  • Marja Lehtonen
Part of the Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences book series (LNESS, volume 137)


The mantle that underlies Archean cratons is a poorly understood fundamental feature of Earth; consequently its genesis is an active topic of discussion and research. This ancient mantle has several unique characteristics, including low density relative to average mantle, concomitant melt-depleted compositions, highly magnesian olivine and consequently high seismic velocities. The buoyancy and rigidity of this type of mantle has allowed Archean lithosphere to remain stable and “float” in a way that keeps it mostly from being reworked back into the convecting mantle. The Karelian craton is one such ancient block of coupled crust and mantle that has survived since at least 3.5 Ga. Kimberlites and lamproites intruded into this region have carried fragments of the mantle and crust to the surface, providing unique information on the composition and structure of the lithosphere down to 250 km below the Earth’s surface. Due to the value of diamond, companies have undertaken exploration all over the world and provided materials for study of this otherwise inaccessible part of our planet.


Lithospheric Mantle Greenstone Belt Mantle Xenolith Fennoscandian Shield Karelian Craton 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geological Survey of FinlandEspooFinland

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