Effects of Gesture on the Perception of Psychological Anthropomorphism: A Case Study with a Humanoid Robot
Previous work has shown that gestural behaviors affect anthropomorphic inferences about artificial communicators such as virtual agents. In an experiment with a humanoid robot, we investigated to what extent gesture would affect anthropomorphic inferences about the robot. Particularly, we examined the effects of the robot’s hand and arm gestures on the attribution of typically human traits, likability of the robot, shared reality, and future contact intentions after interacting with the robot. For this, we manipulated the non-verbal behaviors of the humanoid robot in three experimental conditions: (1) no gesture, (2) congruent gesture, and (3) incongruent gesture. We hypothesized higher ratings on all dependent measures in the two gesture (vs. no gesture) conditions. The results confirm our predictions: when the robot used gestures during interaction, it was anthropomorphized more, participants perceived it as more likable, reported greater shared reality with it, and showed increased future contact intentions than when the robot gave instructions without using gestures. Surprisingly, this effect was particularly pronounced when the robot’s gestures were partly incongruent with speech. These findings show that communicative non-verbal behaviors in robotic systems affect both anthropomorphic perceptions and the mental models humans form of a humanoid robot during interaction.
KeywordsMultimodal Interaction and Conversational Skills Non-verbal Cues and Expressiveness Anthropomorphism
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