Level-Specific Modernization

  • Chuanqi He


So many countries, so many customs (American proverb); while so many layers, so many features. Modernization takes place in almost all countries and at all layers of human civilization including the world, international, national, regional, organizational, and individual layers. As the important part of modernization science (Fig. 5.1), level-specific, stage-related, and field-relative modernization overlaps with each other. There are both similarities and differences among all level-specific modernizations. The adaptability of the core theory of general modernization varies at different levels. Country is the basic unit of modernization, so modernization at every layer is closely related to national modernization.


Income Inequality Modernization Theory World Modernization Modernization Study Regional Innovation System 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chuanqi He
    • 1
  1. 1.China Center for Modernization ResearchChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingP.R. China

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