Experimental Methods for Estimating the Fluxes of Energy and Matter

  • Thomas Foken


In meteorology and climatology, typically only specific atmospheric variables are measured in operational networks and energy and matter fluxes cannot easily be determined.In the last 20 years, the growing interest and research on climate change has increased the demand for reliable measurements of evaporation, carbon dioxide uptake by forests, and fluxes of other greenhouse gases. So far, these measurements were primarily for research purposes but their integration into operational networks is increasing. The measurements are very complex and need comprehensive micrometeorological knowledge. Most of the measurement methods are based on simplifications and special conditions, and therefore their implementation is not trivial. In the following chapter, overview tables provide guidance to the reader about areas of applications and related costs of the various methods.


Latent Heat Flux Deposition Velocity Turbulent Flux Sonic Anemometer Bowen Ratio 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bayreuth Center of Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER)University of BayreuthBayreuthGermany
  2. 2.BischbergGermany

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