Biomimetics pp 67-78 | Cite as

Fabrication Techniques Used for Structures with Superhydrophobicity, Self-Cleaning, Low Adhesion/Low Drag with Antifouling Properties

  • Bharat Bhushan
Part of the Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMEDICAL)


Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces has been an area of active research since the mid-1990s. In general, the same techniques that are used for micro- and nanostructure fabrication, such as lithography, etching, deposition, and self-assembly, have been utilized for producing superhydrophobic surfaces (Fig. 5.1; Table 5.1). The pros and cons of these techniques are summarized in Table 5.2. Among especially interesting developments is the creation of switchable surfaces that can be turned from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by surface energy modification through electrowetting, light and X-ray irradiation, dynamic effects, optical effects (e.g., the transparence, reflectivity or non-reflectivity) combined with the Lotus effect, hydrophobic interactions, and so on (Feng et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2005; Shirtcliffe et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2007; Krupenkin et al., 2007). An important requirement for potential applications for optics and self-cleaning glasses is the creation of transparent superhydrophobic surfaces.


Contact Angle Superhydrophobic Surface Static Contact Angle Contact Angle Hysteresis Lotus Leaf 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nanoprobe Laboratory for Bio- and Nanotechnology and BiomimeticsOhio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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