Realizing Proxy Re-encryption in the Symmetric World

Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 251)


Proxy re-encryption is a useful concept and many proxy re-encryption schemes have been proposed in the asymmetric encryption setting. In the asymmetric encryption setting, proxy re-encryption can be beautifully implemented because many operations are available to directly transform a cipher to another cipher without the proxy needs to access the plaintexts. However, in many situations, for a better performance, the data is encrypted using symmetric ciphers. Most symmetric ciphers do not support proxy cryptography because of malleability (that is needed to implement the proxy re-encryption) is not a desired property in a secure encryption scheme. In this paper, we suggest an idea to implement a pure proxy re-encryption for the symmetric ciphers by first transforming the plaintext into a random sequence of blocks using an All or nothing transform (AONT). We show an example of the proxy re-encryption scheme using a weak encryption (i.e. simple permutation) that has a simple conversion function to convert a permutation to another. The encryption scheme exploits three characteristics of an AONT transformation: (1) the output of an AONT is a pseudorandom, (2) the output of an AONT cannot be transformed back if any parts is missing, and (3) the output of an AONT cannot be transformed back without having all blocks with correct position. We show security argument of the proposed scheme and its performance evaluation.


Database Encryption Symmetric Key Encryption Proxy Re-encryption All or Nothing Transform (AONT) 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ateniese, G., Fu, K., Green, M., Hohenberger, S.: Improved proxy re-encryption schemes with applications to secure distributed storage. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. Secur. 9(1), 1–30 (2006)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bellare, M., Rogaway, P.: Optimal Asymmetric Encryption. In: De Santis, A. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1994. LNCS, vol. 950, pp. 92–111. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blaze, M., Bleumer, G., Strauss, M.J.: Divertible Protocols and Atomic Proxy Cryptography. In: Nyberg, K. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1998. LNCS, vol. 1403, pp. 127–144. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Canetti, R., Hohenberger, S.: Chosen-ciphertext secure proxy re-encryption. In: Proceedings of the 14th ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pp. 185–194. ACM (2007)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cook, D.L., Keromytis, A.D.: Conversion and proxy functions for symmetric key ciphers. In: ITCC, pp. 662–667 (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Desai, A.: The Security of All-or-Nothing Encryption: Protecting Against Exhaustive Key Search. In: Bellare, M. (ed.) CRYPTO 2000. LNCS, vol. 1880, pp. 359–375. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dolev, D., Dwork, C., Naor, M.: Nonmalleable cryptography. SIAM J. Comput. 30(2), 391–437 (2000)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Green, M., Ateniese, G.: Identity-Based Proxy Re-Encryption. In: Katz, J., Yung, M. (eds.) ACNS 2007. LNCS, vol. 4521, pp. 288–306. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hirose, S.: On re-encryption for symmetric authenticated encryption. In: Computer Security Symposium, CSS 2010 (2010)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kaliski Jr., B.S., Rivest, R.L., Sherman, A.T.: Is the data encryption standard a group? (results of cycling experiments on des). J. Cryptology 1(1), 3–36 (1988)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Libert, B., Vergnaud, D.: Unidirectional chosen-ciphertext secure proxy re-encryption. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 57(3), 1786–1802 (2011)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rivest, R.L.: All-or-Nothing Encryption and the Package Transform. In: Biham, E. (ed.) FSE 1997. LNCS, vol. 1267, pp. 210–218. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of InformaticsKyushu UniversityFukuokaJapan

Personalised recommendations