The Symmetry of Birds Emerges as the Expression of an Uninterrupted Atomic Order

  • A. Lima-de-Faria


The avian body is characterized by an external bilateral symmetry. Birds have two eyes, two wings and two legs. Internally there is an asymmetry. They have two kidneys, two testes, but one heart, one liver and one functional ovary.

Symmetries are known to be an integral part of geometry.

This symmetry did not arise at the biological level but goes back to the minerals and even to the elementary particles. The final pattern of an organism is far removed from the information received from the genetic code and it appears as the expression of an uninterrupted atomic order.


Living Organism Genetic Code Atomic Process Bilateral Symmetry Morphogenic Gradient 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Cell and Organism BiologyLund UniversityLundSweden
  2. 2.LundSweden

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