A Method to Check the Satisfaction of Continuous-Time Constraints by Nonlinear Stories

  • Eric T. Araujo
  • Angelo E. M. Ciarlini
  • Cesar T. Pozzer
  • Bruno Feijó
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 7069)


Within an interactive storytelling context, stories are essentially nonlinear, i.e., they correspond to multiple alternative sequences of events and each event can usually have multiple different outcomes. In this context, branching-time logics tend to be a coherent option to handle the possible states of an interactive story. In addition, important properties of the stories, such as the emotions they generate, continuously vary over time. In this paper, we describe an implemented method to check whether (parts of) interactive stories satisfy continuous-time constraints specified by means of a temporal modal logic, assuming that the time is continuous and branched. The method was applied to a story context with variants of the Little Red Riding Hood fairy tale.


Interactive Storytelling Constraint Programming Temporal Logics Continuous Change Branching Time 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Zagalo, N., Branco, V., Barker, A.: Emoção e Suspense no Storytelling Interactivo. In: Actas, Games 2004 - Workshop Entretenimento Digital e Jogos Interactivos, Lisbon, Portugal (2004)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Guilherme da Silva, F.A., Ciarlini, A.E.M., Siqueira, S.W.M.: Nondeterministic Planning for Generating Interactive Plots. In: Kuri-Morales, A., Simari, G.R. (eds.) IBERAMIA 2010. LNCS, vol. 6433, pp. 133–143. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Konur, S.: Real-time and probabilistic temporal logics: An overview. Cornell University Library (May 2010),
  4. 4.
    Marriot, K., Stuckey, P.J.: Programming with Constraints. MIT Press (1998)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
    SWI Prolog website,
  7. 7.
    Plutchik, R.: A general psychoevolutionary theory of emotion. In: Plutchik, R., Kellerman, H. (eds.) Emotion: Theory, Research, and Experience. Theories of Emotion, vol. 1. Academic, New York (1980)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Henzinger, T.A., Ho, P.-H., Wong-Toi, H.: HYTECH: A Model Checker for Hybrid Systems. In: Grumberg, O. (ed.) CAV 1997. LNCS, vol. 1254, pp. 460–463. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McMillan, K.L.: Symbolic Model Checking. Kluwer Academic Publishers, USA (1993)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Thue, D., Bulitko, V., Spetch, M., Wasylishnen, E.: Interactive storytelling: A player modelling approach. In: Proceedings of the 4th Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment Conference – AIIDE 2007, Stanford, California (2007)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    El-Nasr, M.S.: Interaction, Narrative, and Drama Creating an Adaptive Interactive Narrative using Performance Arts Theories. Interaction Studies 8(2) (2007)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zagalo, N., Göbel, S., Torres, A., Malkewitz, R., Branco, V.A.: INSCAPE: Emotion Expression and Experience in an Authoring Environment. In: Göbel, S., Malkewitz, R., Iurgel, I. (eds.) TIDSE 2006. LNCS, vol. 4326, pp. 219–230. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric T. Araujo
    • 1
  • Angelo E. M. Ciarlini
    • 1
  • Cesar T. Pozzer
    • 2
  • Bruno Feijó
    • 3
  1. 1.Departamento de Informática AplicadaUNIRIORio de JaneiroBrazil
  2. 2.Dep. de Eletrônica e ComputaçãoUniversidade Federal de Santa MariaSanta MariaBrazil
  3. 3.Departamento de InformáticaPUC-RioRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations