Radiation Phenomena behind Shock Waves

  • M. Y. Perrin
  • Ph. Riviére
  • A. Soufiani
Chapter
Part of the Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library book series (SHOCKWAVES, volume 7)

Introduction

Shock waves produce hot gases, which radiate. Radiation is a full partner of the many physical and chemical processes which have to be taken into account in physical gasdynamics in hot gases [1-3]. As the emitted radiation is linked to the thermochemical state of the media, it has been widely used as a non disturbing tool to characterize the state of media behind shock waves. The emitted radiation may also contribute to the heat flux suffered by an obstacle. This contribution will be important for a vehicle entering an atmosphere [4] at very high speed such those experienced in aerocapture entry or lunar return for example. For vehicles entering the Earth’s atmosphere at velocity higher than 10km/s, the role of radiative heating in the total flux balance becomes essential. For Galileo entry into Jovian atmosphere the contribution of radiation was dominant for most of the entry trajectory. Accurate predictions of the non-equilibrium radiation in shock layers are thus required for efficient design of thermal protection systems. Radiation may also modify the gas dynamics. The emitted photons can either leave the flow, giving rise to the so-called radiative cooling, or can be re-absorbed, contributing to the transport of energy. Under some conditions, the processes of emission and absorption of photons have to be included in the equations describing the evolution of atomic and molecular internal states. As the emission and absorption coefficients depend on the internal state of gases, the radiation field and the internal state of gases must be determined self-consistently. The role of radiation is particularly important in the so-called radiative shocks [1,2], which are present in a wide range of astronomical objects and which can be generated in the laboratory using high-power lasers. In these high Mach number shocks, the radiation energy density, flux and stress tensor have to be included in the set of conservative equations; furthermore the medium may be photoionized ahead of the shock front giving rise to precursors which modify the shock jump relations. In these cases, the radiation drives the flow. In the present paper, we will mainly be concerned by radiation in hypersonic flows encountered in atmospheric entries. The incident probe velocities range from about 5 km/s for a low-speed Mars or Titan entry to almost 60 km/s for a polar probe to Jupiter. At these speeds, a strong shock wave forms in front of the entering probe that dissociates and, for the highest velocities, ionizes the gas.

Keywords

Shock Wave Radiative Transfer Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer Equation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Y. Perrin
    • 1
  • Ph. Riviére
    • 1
  • A. Soufiani
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire EM2C, CNRS UPR288, Ecole Centrale ParisChatenay-MalabryFrance

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