Breastfeeding and Obesity: Impact on Women and Their Children

  • Tessa Crume
  • Dana Dabelea


Rates of prepregnancy obesity are rising in many countries around the globe, and epidemiologic data suggest a direct link between maternal prepregnancy BMI and offspring obesity. Maternal obesity coupled with lack of breastfeeding has been associated with a sixfold increased risk for child obesity. Moreover, population subgroups of women in many countries with the highest burden of obesity also have the lowest rates of initiation and shortest durations of breastfeeding, presenting an alarming possibility of a transgenerational cycle of obesity and associated chronic disease. Evidence is also mounting that lactation may be beneficial to women’s future health including protection against development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases later in life. The reasons for poor breastfeeding rates among overweight and obese women are likely to be multifactorial including biologic, sociocultural, and behavioral factors. High quality research on the predictors, barriers, and specific effects of breastfeeding on maternal and child health are needed to inform and promote targeted clinical and public health interventions.


Breast Milk Exclusive Breastfeed Prepregnancy Body Mass Index Obesity Risk Maternal Obesity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. American Academy of Pediatrics, Kleinmann R (2004) Pediatric nutrition handbook. American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove VillageGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson A, Damio G, Young S, Chapman D, Perez-Escamilla R (2005) A randomized trial assessing the efficacy of peer counseling on exclusive breastfeeding in a predominantly Latina low-income community. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159:836–841PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arenz S, Ruckerl R, Koletzko B, Von Kries R (2004) Breast-feeding and childhood obesity – a systematic review. Int J Obes 28:1247–1256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armstrong J, Reilly J (2002) Breastfeeding and lowering the risk of childhood obesity. Lancet 359:2003–2004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Azziz R (1989) Reproductive endocrinologic alterations in female asymptomatic obesity. Fertil Steril 52(5):703–725, available from: PM:2680625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker JL, Gamborg M, Heitmann BL, Lissner L, Sorensen TI, Rasmussen KM (2008) Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention. Am J Clin Nutr 88(6):1543–1551, available from: PM:19064514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bergmann K, Bergmann R, Von Kries R, Bohm O, Richter R, Dudenhausen J, Wahn U (2003) Early determinants of childhood overweight and adiposity in a birth cohort study: role of breast-feeding. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27:162–172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beyerlein A, von Kries R (2011) Breastfeeding and body composition in children: will there ever be conclusive empirical evidence for a protective effect against overweight? Am J Clin Nutr 94(6):1772S–1775SPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beyerlein A, Toschke AM, von Kries R (2008) Breastfeeding and childhood obesity: shift of the entire BMI distribution or only the upper parts? Obesity (Silver Spring) 16:2730–2733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bogen D, Hanusa B, Whitaker R (2004) The effect of breast-feeding with and without formula use on the risk of obesity at 4 years of age. Obes Res 12:1527–1535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Butte NF, King JC (2005) Energy requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Public Health Nutr 8(7A):1010–1027, available from: PM:16277817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Butte NF, Hopkinson JM, Mehta N, Moon JK, Smith EO (1999) Adjustments in energy expenditure and substrate utilization during late pregnancy and lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 69(2):299–307, available from: PM:9989696PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cameron N (2006) Growth in infancy and childhood: a pediatric approach. In: Human growth and development. Elsevier Science Academic Press, Cameron N: Editor AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2006) Racial and socioeconomic disparities in breastfeeding – United States, 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 55:335–339Google Scholar
  15. Coates MM (1989) Assisting the newborn to latch on to the very large breast: help! J Hum Lact 5:131–132, available from: PM:2775464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crume TL, Ogden L, Daniels S, Hamman RF, Norris JM, Dabelea D (2011a) The impact of in utero exposure to diabetes on childhood body mass index growth trajectories: the EPOCH study. J Pediatr 158:941–946, available from: PM:21238981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crume TL, Ogden L, West NA, Vehik KS, Scherzinger A, Daniels S, McDuffie R, Bischoff K, Hamman RF, Norris JM, Dabelea D (2011b) Association of exposure to diabetes in utero with adiposity and fat distribution in a multiethnic population of youth: the Exploring Perinatal Outcomes among Children (EPOCH) Study. Diabetologia 54:87–92, available from: PM:20953862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dabelea D, Pettitt DJ (2001) Intrauterine diabetic environment confers risks for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in the offspring, in addition to genetic susceptibility. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 14:1085–1091, available from: PM:11592564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dewey KG (1997) Energy and protein requirements during lactation. Annu Rev Nutr 17:19–36, available from: PM:9240917PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dewey K (2003) Is breastfeeding protective against child obesity? J Hum Lact 19:9–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA, Peerson JM, Lonnerdal B (1992) Growth of breast-fed and formula-fed infants from 0 to 18 months: the DARLING Study. Pediatrics 89:1035–1041, available from: PM:1594343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dewey KG, Heinig MJ, Nommsen LA (1993) Maternal weight-loss patterns during prolonged lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 58:162–166, available from: PM:8338042PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dewey KG, Peerson JM, Brown KH, Krebs NF, Michaelsen KF, Persson LA, Salmenpera L, Whitehead RG, Yeung DL (1995) Growth of breast-fed infants deviates from current reference data: a pooled analysis of US, Canadian, and European data sets. World Health Organization Working Group on Infant Growth. Pediatrics 96:495–503, available from: PM:7651784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Donath SM, Amir LH (2000) Does maternal obesity adversely affect breastfeeding initiation and duration? Breastfeed Rev 8:29–33, available from: PM:11210280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Edmond K, Kirkwood B, Amenga-Etego S, Owusa-Agyei S, Hart L (2007) Effect of early infant feeding practices on infant-specific neonatal mortality: an investigation of the causal links with observational data from rural Ghana. Am J Clin Nutr 86:1126–1131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ekstrom A, Widstrom A, Nissen E (2003) Duration of breastfeeding in Swedish primiparous and multiparous women. J Hum Lact 19:172–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Forster DA, McLachlan HL, Lumley J (2006) Factors associated with breastfeeding at six months postpartum in a group of Australian women. Int Breastfeed J 1:18, available from: PM:17034645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gillman M, Rifas-Shiman S, Camargo JC, Berkey C, Frazier A, Rockett H, Field A, Colditz G (2001) Risk of overweight among adolescents who were breastfed as infants. JAMA 285:2461–2467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grummer-Strawn L, Mei Z (2004) Does breastfeeding protect against pediatric overweight? Analysis of longitudinal data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System. Pediatrics 113:e81–e86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Guillaume M, Lapidus L, Beckers F, Lambert A, Bjorntorp P (1995) Familial trends of obesity through three generations: the Belgian-Luxembourg child study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 19(Suppl 3):S5–S9, available from: PM:8581077PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gunderson EP, Abrams B (1999) Epidemiology of gestational weight gain and body weight changes after pregnancy. Epidemiol Rev 21:261–275, available from: PM:10682262PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gunderson EP, Lewis CE, Wei GS, Whitmer RA, Quesenberry CP, Sidney S (2007) Lactation and changes in maternal metabolic risk factors. Obstet Gynecol 109:729–738, available from: PM:17329527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hambraeus L (1977a) Proprietary milk versus human breast milk in infant feeding. A critical appraisal from the nutritional point of view. Pediatr Clin North Am 24:17–36, available from: PM:322057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hambraeus L (1977b) Proprietary milk versus human breast milk in infant feeding. A critical appraisal from the nutritional point of view. Pediatr Clin North Am 24:17–36, available from: PM:322057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Harder T, Bergmann R, Kallischnigg G, Plagemann A (2005) Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 162:397–403PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hediger M, Overpeck M, Kuczmarski R, Ruan W (2001) Association between infant breastfeeding and overweight in young children. JAMA 285:2453–2460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hilson J, Rasmussen KM, Kjolhede C (1997) Maternal obesity and breastfeeding success in a rural population of white women. Am J Clin Nutr 66:1371–1378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Holmes A, Auinger P, Howard C (2011) Combination feeding of breast milk and formula: evidence for shorter breast-feeding duration from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Pediatr 159:186–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hoover K (2000) Latch-on difficulties: a clinical observation. J Hum Lact 16:6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Infant and young child nutrition (2001) Report on World Health Organization 54th World Health Assembly (WHA54.2); Geneva, Switzerland; May 18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kerssen A, Evers IM, de Valk HW, Visser GH (2004) Effect of breast milk of diabetic mothers on bodyweight of the offspring in the first year of life. Eur J Clin Nutr 58:1429–1431, available from: PM:15054417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kjos SL, Henry O, Lee RM, Buchanan TA, Mishell DR Jr (1993) The effect of lactation on glucose and lipid metabolism in women with recent gestational diabetes. Obstet Gynecol 82:451–455, available from: PM:8355952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Kjos SL, Peters RK, Xiang A, Henry OA, Montoro M, Buchanan TA (1995) Predicting future diabetes in Latino women with gestational diabetes. Utility of early postpartum glucose tolerance testing. Diabetes 44:586–591, available from: PM:7729620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Knopp RH, Walden CE, Wahl PW, Bergelin R, Chapman M, Irvine S, Albers JJ (1985) Effect of postpartum lactation on lipoprotein lipids and apoproteins. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 60:542–547, available from: PM:3972965PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kramer M (1981) Do breast-feeding and delayed introduction of solid foods protect against subsequent obesity? J Pediatr 98:883–887PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kramer M, Chalmers B, Hodnett ED et al (2001) Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT): a randomized trial in the Republic of Belarus. JAMA 285:413–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kramer MS, Guo T, Platt RW, Vanilovich I, Sevkovskaya Z, Dzikovich I, Michaelsen KF, Dewey K (2004) Feeding effects on growth during infancy. J Pediatr 145:600–605, available from: PM:15520757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Krause KM, Lovelady CA, Ostbye T (2011) Predictors of breastfeeding in overweight and obese women: data from Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP). Matern Child Health J 15:367–375, available from: PM:20821042PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kugyelka JG, Rasmussen KM, Frongillo EA (2004) Maternal obesity is negatively associated with breastfeeding success among Hispanic but not Black women. J Nutr 134:1746–1753, available from: PM:15226464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kvaavik E, Tell G, Klepp K (2005) Surveys of Norwegian youth indicated that breastfeeding reduced subsequent risk of obesity. J Clin Epidemiol 58:849–855PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lacoursiere DY, Baksh L, Bloebaum L, Varner MW (2006) Maternal body mass index and self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms. Matern Child Health J 10:385–390, available from: PM:16673179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lenz S, Kuhl C, Hornnes PJ, Hagen C (1981) Influence of lactation on oral glucose tolerance in the puerperium. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 98:428–431, available from: PM:6794284Google Scholar
  53. Li R, Grummer-Strawn L (2002) Racial and ethnic disparities in breastfeeding among United States infants: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Birth 29:251–257, available from: PM:12431264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Li L, Parson T, Power C (2003) Breast feeding and obesity in childhood: cross sectional study. BMJ 327:904–905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Li C, Kaur H, Choi W, Huang T, Lee R, Ahluwalia J (2005) Additive interactions of maternal prepregnancy BMI and breast-feeding on childhood overweight. Obes Res 13:362–371PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Liese A, Hirsch T, von Mutius E, Keil U, Leupold W, Weiland S (2001) Inverse association of overweight and breast feeding in 9 to 10-yold children in Germany. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25:1644–1650PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Linne Y, Dye L, Barkeling B, Rossner S (2004) Long-term weight development in women: a 15-year follow-up of the effects of pregnancy. Obes Res 12:1166–1178, available from: PM:15292482PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Liu J, Smith MG, Dobre MA, Ferguson JE (2010) Maternal obesity and breast-feeding practices among white and black women. Obesity 18:175–182, available from: PM:19521347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lucas A, Boyes S, Bloom SR, Aynsley-Green A (1981) Metabolic and endocrine responses to a milk feed in six-day-old term infants: differences between breast and cow’s milk formula feeding. Acta Paediatr Scand 70:195–200, available from: PM:7015784PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Maffeis C, Micciolo R, Must A, Zaffanello M, Pinelli L (1994) Parental and perinatal factors associated with childhood obesity in north-east Italy. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 18:301–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Mayer-Davis EJ, Rifas-Shiman SL, Zhou L, Hu FB, Colditz GA, Gillman MW (2006) Breast-feeding and risk for childhood obesity: does maternal diabetes or obesity status matter? Diabetes Care 29:2231–2237, available from: PM:17003298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McManus RM, Cunningham I, Watson A, Harker L, Finegood DT (2001) Beta-cell function and visceral fat in lactating women with a history of gestational diabetes. Metabolism 50:715–719, available from: PM:11398150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McNamara JP (1994) Lipid metabolism in adipose tissue during lactation: a model of a metabolic control system. J Nutr 124:1383S–1391S, available from: PM:8064388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Nelson M, Gordon-Larsen P, Adair L (2005) Are adolescents who were breast-fed less likely to be overweight? Analyses of sibling pairs to reduce confounding. Epidemiology 16:247–253PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ohlin A, Rossner S (1990) Maternal body weight development after pregnancy. Int J Obes 14:159–173, available from: PM:2341224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Olson CM, Strawderman MS, Hinton PS, Pearson TA (2003) Gestational weight gain and postpartum behaviors associated with weight change from early pregnancy to 1 y postpartum. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27:117–127, available from: PM:12532163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Owen C, Martin R, Whincup P, Davey-Smith G, Gillman M, Cook D (2005a) The effect of breastfeeding on mean body mass index throughout life: a quantitative review of published and unpublished observational evidence. Am J Clin Nutr 82:1298–1307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Owen C, Martin R, Whincup P, Smith G, Cook D (2005b) Effect of infant feeding on the risk of obesity across the life course: a quantitative review of published evidence. Pediatrics 115:1367–1377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pasquali R, Gambineri A, Pagotto U (2006) The impact of obesity on reproduction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. BJOG 113:1148–1159, available from: PM:16827825PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Pettitt DJ, Knowler WC (1998) Long-term effects of the intrauterine environment, birth weight, and breast-feeding in Pima Indians. Diabetes Care 21:B138–B141, available from: PM:9704241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Plagemann A, Harder T, Franke K, Kohlhoff R (2002) Long-term impact of neonatal breast-feeding on body weight and glucose tolerance in children of diabetic mothers. Diabetes Care 25:16–22, available from: PM:11772895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Poulton R (2001) Breastfeeding and the risk of overweight. JAMA 286:1449–1450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Ramsay JE, Ferrell WR, Crawford L, Wallace AM, Greer IA, Sattar N (2002) Maternal obesity is associated with dysregulation of metabolic, vascular, and inflammatory pathways. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:4231–4237, available from: PM:12213876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rasmussen KM, Kjolhede CL (2004) Prepregnant overweight and obesity diminish the prolactin response to suckling in the first week postpartum. Pediatrics 113:e465–e471, available from: PM:15121990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Reilly J, Armstrong J, Dorosty A, Emmett P, Ness A, Rogers I, Steer C, Sherriff A (2005) Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: cohort study. BMJ 330:1357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rennie KL, Jebb SA (2005) Prevalence of obesity in Great Britain. Obes Rev 6:11–12, available from: PM:15655034PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rodekamp E, Harder T, Kohlhoff R, Franke K, Dudenhausen JW, Plagemann A (2005) Long-term impact of breast-feeding on body weight and glucose tolerance in children of diabetic mothers: role of the late neonatal period and early infancy. Diabetes Care 28:1457–1462, available from: PM:15920068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rooney BL, Schauberger CW (2002) Excess pregnancy weight gain and long-term obesity: one decade later. Obstet Gynecol 100:245–252, available from: PM:12151145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rowe-Murray HJ, Fisher JR (2002) Baby-friendly hospital practices: cesarean section is a persistent barrier to early initiation of breastfeeding. Birth 29:124–131, available from: PM:12000413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rutishauser I, Carlin J (1992) Body mass index and duration of breastfeeding: a survival analysis during the first six months of life. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 46:559–565Google Scholar
  81. Savino F, Nanni GE, Maccario S, Costamagna M, Oggero R, Silvestro L (2004) Breast-fed infants have higher leptin values than formula-fed infants in the first four months of life. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 17:1527–1532, available from: PM:15570990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Schwarz EB, Brown JS, Creasman JM, Stuebe A, McClure CK, Van Den Eeden SK, Thom D (2010) Lactation and maternal risk of type 2 diabetes: a population-based study. Am J Med 123:863–866, available from: PM:20800156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sebire NJ, Jolly M, Harris JP, Wadsworth J, Joffe M, Beard RW, Regan L, Robinson S (2001) Maternal obesity and pregnancy outcome: a study of 287,213 pregnancies in London. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25:1175–1182, available from: PM:11477502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Shealy K, Scanlon KS, Labiner-Wolfe J, Fein S, Grummer-Strawn L (2008) Characteristics of breastfeeding practices among US mothers. Pediatrics 122:S50–S55PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stuebe AM, Rich-Edwards JW (2009) The reset hypothesis: lactation and maternal metabolism. Am J Perinatol 26:81–88, available from: PM:19031350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stuebe AM, Rich-Edwards JW, Willett WC, Manson JE, Michels KB (2005) Duration of lactation and incidence of type 2 diabetes. JAMA 294:2601–2610, available from: PM:16304074PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stuebe AM, Mantzoros C, Kleinman K, Gillman MW, Rifas-Shiman S, Gunderson EP, Rich-Edwards J (2011) Duration of lactation and maternal adipokines at 3 years postpartum. Diabetes 60:1277–1285, available from: PM:21350085PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. van Beusekom CM, Zeegers TA, Martini IA, Velvis HJ, Visser GH, van Doormaal JJ, Muskiet FA (1993) Milk of patients with tightly controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus has normal macronutrient and fatty acid composition. Am J Clin Nutr 57:938–943, available from: PM:8503365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. van Raaij JM, Schonk CM, Vermaat-Miedema SH, Peek ME, Hautvast JG (1991) Energy cost of lactation, and energy balances of well-nourished Dutch lactating women: reappraisal of the extra energy requirements of lactation. Am J Clin Nutr 53:612–619, available from: PM:2000814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Victoria C, Barros F, Lima R, Horta B, Wells J (2003) Anthropometry and body composition of 18 year old men according to duration of breast feeding: birth cohort study from Brazil. BMJ 327:901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wadsworth M, Marshall S, Hardy R, Paul A (1999) Breast feeding and obesity. Relation may be accounted for by social factors. BMJ 319:1576PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wang Y, Beydoun MA (2007) The obesity epidemic in the United States--gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiol Rev 29:6–28, available from: PM:17510091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wang Y, Lobstein T (2006) Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. Int J Pediatr Obes 1:11–25, available from: PM:17902211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. West NA, Crume TL, Maligie MA, Dabelea D (2011) Cardiovascular risk factors in children exposed to maternal diabetes in utero. Diabetologia 54:504–507, available from: PM:21153896PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Whitaker R (2004) Predicting preschooler obesity at birth: the role of maternal obesity in early pregnancy. Pediatrics 114:e29–e36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Whitlock EP, Williams SB, Gold R, Smith PR, Shipman SA (2005) Screening and interventions for childhood overweight: a summary of evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Pediatrics 116:e125–e144, available from: PM:15995013PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public HealthUniversity of Colorado DenverAuroraUSA

Personalised recommendations