Obesity in Pregnancy: Data from the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study

  • Harold David McIntyre
  • Lynn P. Lowe
  • Alan R. Dyer
  • Boyd E. Metzger


The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study has provided an opportunity to assess the relative associations of maternal glycemia measured at an oral glucose tolerance test (mean 28 weeks gestation) and maternal body mass index with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes, without many of the potential confounding factors seen in previous studies. The HAPO study confirmed independently significant associations between maternal BMI and birthweight >90th centile, frequency of primary cesarean section, neonatal hypoglycemia, neonatal hyperinsulinemia, preeclampsia, and neonatal adiposity. The combination of maternal obesity and gestational diabetes was associated with higher frequencies of adverse outcomes than either variable in isolation.


Body Mass Index Pregnancy Outcome Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Maternal Body Mass Index Oral Glucose Tolerance Test Result 
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The authors acknowledge the HAPO Study Steering Committee for their assistance in the final reviews of this document.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harold David McIntyre
    • 1
  • Lynn P. Lowe
    • 2
  • Alan R. Dyer
    • 3
  • Boyd E. Metzger
    • 4
  1. 1.University of Queensland and Mater Medical Research InstituteSouth BrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Preventive MedicineNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Preventive MedicineNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  4. 4.Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism & Molecular MedicineNorthwestern University Feinberg School of MedicineChicagoUSA

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