• Doina Piciu


Most radiopharmaceuticals are used for the purpose of medical diagnosis. They usually contain only small amounts of the active substances with a radionuclide attached to them to allow scintigraphic imaging or measurement of the biodistribution. In the case of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals, the radiation effect is the target property. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of radiopharmaceuticals should include radiopharmaceutical and radiation protection aspects and radiation dosimetry in addition to general parameters. The principal characteristics and the main clinical indications of some radiopharmaceuticals with use in endocrinology are presented in Chap. 6.


Neuroendocrine Tumor Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy Sodium Iodide Beta Particle 
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Further Reading

  1. Chilton HM, Witcofski RL (1986) Nuclear pharmacy. An introduction to the clinical applications of radiopharmaceuticals. Lea and Fiebiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Henkin RE, Boles MA, Dillehay GL et al (1996) The scientific basis of nuclear medicine; Part IIB: radiopharmacy. In: Nuclear medicine. Mosby, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Hung JC, Ponto JA, Hammes RI (1996) Radiopharmaceutical- related pitfalls and artifacts. Semin Nucl Med 26:208–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. IAEA (2007) Comparative evaluation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals. Technical reports series no. 458 STI/Doc/010/458Google Scholar
  5. Ishibashi M et al (1998) Comparison of technetium-99m-MIBI, technetium-99m- tetrofosmin, ultrasound and MRI for localization of abnormal parathyroid glands. J Nucl Med 39:320–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Kowalsky RJ, Perry JR (1987) Radiopharmaceuticals. In: Nuclear medicine. Appleton&Lange, NorwalkGoogle Scholar
  7. Palmer EL, Scott JA, Strauss HW (1992) Radiation and radionuclides. In: Practical nuclear medicine. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia, pp 57–71Google Scholar
  8. Rubello D, Mariani G, Pelizzo MR, Giscris A (2007) Minimally invasive radio-guided parathyroidectomy on a group of 452 primary hyperparathyroid patients – refinement of preoperative imaging and intraoperative procedure. Nuklearmedizin 46:85–92Google Scholar
  9. Rubow SM, Ellmann A, Leroux J, Klopper J (1991) Excretion of Tc-99m hexakismethoxyisobutylisonitrile in milk. Eur J Nucl Med 18:363–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Saha GB (1992) Fundamentals of nuclear pharmacy, 4th edn. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Sampson CB (1999) Textbook of radiopharmacy: theory and practice, 3rd edn. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  12. Sharp PF, Gemmell H, Murray A (eds) (2005) Practical nuclear medicine, 3rd edn. Springer, New York, pp 113–143Google Scholar
  13. Thakur ML (2003) New radiopharmaceuticals in oncologic diagnosis and therapy. Cancer Biother Radiopharm 18:276Google Scholar
  14. Williams LE (2010) Radiopharmaceuticals – introduction to drug evaluation and dose estimation. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nuclear Medicine and Endocrine TumorsInstitute of Oncology Prof. Dr. Ion ChiricuţăCluj-NapocaRomania

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