Pretreatment prognostic factors comprise both patient- and tumor-related characteristics. Female sex has been shown to be associated with a more favorable survival; however, it is unlikely that there are gender-specific differences in rectal cancer-specific survival rates. Higher rates of toxicity and treatment deviation have been noted among elderly patients. An increased body mass index was associated with a decreased likelihood of sphincter preservation and an increased risk of local recurrences. Tumor-related risk factors include circumferential, tethered or fixed, obstructing, and low-lying tumors. The cT- and cN-stage are associated with the risk of failure; however, they do not separate different prognostic groups equally effective compared with the ypT- and ypN-stage. MRI-defined risk factors comprise the spread of the tumor into the mesorectal compartment, the distance of the tumor to the mesorectal fascia, and the identification of extramural venous invasion.
Rectal Cancer Anal Verge Circumferential Resection Margin Dutch Trial Mesorectal Fascia
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