What Is the Role of IMRT and IGRT in Rectal Cancer?

  • Jasper Nijkamp
  • Karin Haustermans
  • Corrie A. M. Marijnen


Over the past decades, advances in multi-modality treatment strategies have contributed significantly to the improvement of outcome in rectal cancer patients [1–6]. Decisions about the therapeutic regimen are based on tumour characteristics such as TNM stage and the involvement of the mesorectal fascia (MRF), determined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) at time of diagnosis and on post-operative pathological evaluation. Based on these characteristics, rectal cancers can be divided into three groups with respect to their chances of developing either local and/or distant recurrences: low, intermediate and high risk or the ‘good’, the ‘bad’ and the ‘ugly’ [7, 8]. In each group, different risks are at stake which challenges the determination of optimal treatment.


Rectal Cancer Planning Target Volume Cone Beam Compute Tomography Clinical Target Volume Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jasper Nijkamp
    • 1
  • Karin Haustermans
    • 2
  • Corrie A. M. Marijnen
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Radiation OncologyThe Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek HospitalAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Radiation OncologyLeuven Cancer Institute, University Hospital GasthuisbergLeuvenBelgium
  3. 3.Department of Clinical OncologyLeiden University Medical CenterLeidenThe Netherlands

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