VCSELs pp 379-401 | Cite as

Red Emitting VCSEL

  • Michael Jetter
  • Robert Roßbach
  • Peter Michler
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 166)


This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents \(({\leq} 1\,\hbox{mA})\) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around \(10\,\hbox{A}/\hbox{cm}^{2}\) could be observed.


Distribute Bragg Reflector Aperture Diameter Modulation Bandwidth Optical Output Power Mirror Pair 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors would like to thank Erich Kohler for assistance with the MOVPE growth and Marcus Eichfelder, Michael Wiesner, Susanne Weidenfeld, Monika Ubl, and Hedi Gräbeldinger for help with the device processing.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Jetter
    • 1
  • Robert Roßbach
    • 1
  • Peter Michler
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Halbleiteroptik und Funktionelle GrenzflächenUniversität StuttgartStuttgartGermany

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