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Theory of Mind pp 347-359 | Cite as

Autismus, Asperger-Syndrom und schizotypische Persönlichkeitsstörung

  • Matthias Dose
  • Katja Weber
Chapter

Zusammenfassung

Die erste Beschreibung der heute als frühkindlicher Autismus (ICD-10 F84.0, WHO 1991; DSM IV 299.0, APA 1996) klassifizierten »tief greifenden Entwicklungsstörung« (Kanner-Autismus) geht auf eine 1943 gedruckte Publikation (»Autistic Disturbances of Affective Contact«) des 1924 in die USA ausgewanderten, 1919 in Berlin promovierten, in Kletokow (Galizien) gebürtigen Psychiaters Leo Kanner zurück. Ohne expliziten Bezug auf E. Bleuler (s. unten) spricht Kanner von einer »extremen autistischen Einsamkeit« (extreme autistic aloneness), die das Bild der von ihm als childhood psychosis bezeichneten Entwicklungsstörung präge. Damit sollte ausgedrückt werden, dass es bei der klinisch auffälligen »Andersartigkeit« der beschriebenen Kinder nicht um Unsicherheit, Schüchternheit oder Zurückgezogenheit, sondern um selbstbezogene Isolation, psychisches Alleinsein handelt (Frith 1992). Kanner folgerte aus seinen Beobachtungen, dass

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fachkrankenhaus für Psychiatrie und PsychotherapieBezirkskrankenhaus Taufkirchen (Vils)Taufkirchen/VilsDeutschland
  2. 2.Krankenhaus MerheimKlinikum der Universität Witten/HerdeckeKölnDeutschland

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