Disposal to Surface Water

  • Bradley Ladewig
  • Benjamin Asquith
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science book series (BRIEFSMOLECULAR)


This chapter discusses disposal to surface water, the most common method of concentrate management. This includes concentrate that is directly disposed of into rivers, creeks, lakes, oceans, bays, and other bodies of water. Concentrate is piped to the site of disposal, where it is discharged to the receiving body of water via an outfall structure. The environmental impacts of surface water disposal may be lessened by diluting the concentrate prior to discharge, or by dilution of the concentrate through the design of the outfall structure and diffusers. Pretreatment processes that lessen the impact on the environment should also be considered.


Concentrate blending Concentrate transport Costs Disposal regulations Environmental concerns Outfall design 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringMonash UniversityClaytonAustralia

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