Cybernetic Approach to Project Management: Where Sense Making Intelligence Is Needed
The original cybernetics of Norbert Wiener concerns self-regulation and equilibrium stabilisation around specified goal – mainly through negative feedback. This is an attractive preposition for project management. Yet complexity and chaos of projects are better reflected by non-linear systems, which in turn are better manageable in adaptive and self-organised distributed systems with positive feedback.
Paper presents the mental model of project management based on cybernetic system approach with several asynchronously running decentralised subsystems based on specific component-goal oriented processes.
Without claming the wholeness or completeness of the solution the indices of possible project performance improvements provide sufficient justification for continuing research in this area.
KeywordsCybernetic project management non-linear systems in projects finite models initial conditions sensibility complex systems negative and positive feedbacks multiple equilibriums L-TimerTM
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bousquet, A.: Scientific Way of Warfare: Order and Chaos on the Battlefields of Modernity. Columbia University Press, New York (2009)Google Scholar
- Caupin, G., et al.: International Project Management Association: International Competence Baseline (version 3). IPMA (2007), ISBN 0-9553213-0-1 Google Scholar
- Kaplan, F.: The wizards of Armageddon. Simon & Schuster, reissued Standford University Press, Stanford, USA (1984)Google Scholar
- Kaufmann, S.: At Home in the Universe: The Search for Law of Self-Organization and Complexity. Oxford University Press, London (1955)Google Scholar
- Lee, G., Roberts, I.: Coaching for authentic Leadership. In: Passmore, J. (ed.) Leadership Coaching: Working with Leaders to Develop Elite Performance, Kogan Page Ltd., London (2010)Google Scholar
- Lent, B.: Dataflow Architecture fo Machine Control. Research Studies Press, Ltd., Taunton (1989)Google Scholar
- Lent, B.: IT-Projekte lenken - mit System. Vieweg, Wiesbaden (2004)Google Scholar
- Lent, B.: Human Factor Skills of Project Managers Derived from the Analysis of the Project Management Processes. PMI AGC, Bahrain (2009)Google Scholar
- PMI, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge PMBOK Guide, 3rd edn. PMI Inc., Newtown Square (2004)Google Scholar
- RTO Technical Repport TR-SAS-050, Exploring New Command and Control Concepts and Capabilities, NATO Neuilly-sur-Seine Cedex, France (2007)Google Scholar
- Rufenacht, U.: Projektschlussbeurteilung P05/ProCur (Final report on Project P05/ProCur), Internal Report Swiss Ministry of Finances, Bern, Switzerland (2005)Google Scholar
- Singh, H., Singh, A.: Principles of complexity and chaos theory in project execution: a new approach to management cost engineering. Cost Engineering 44(12), 23–32 (2002)Google Scholar
- Verma, V.K.: Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager. PMI, Newtown Square (1996)Google Scholar
- von Foerster, H.: Cybernetics of Cybernetics, Biological Computer Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign (1974)Google Scholar
- Waldrop, M.M.: Complexity, The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos. Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, New York (1992)Google Scholar
- Wienert, N.: Cybernetics: or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. MIT, Massachusetts (1948, 1961)Google Scholar