Reusing and Re-engineering Non-ontological Resources for Building Ontologies



With the goal of speeding up the ontology development process, ontology developers are reusing as much as possible available ontological and non-ontological resources such as classification schemes, thesauri, lexicons, and folksonomies, that have already reached some consensus. The reuse of such non-ontological resources necessarily involves their re-engineering into ontologies. Based on this new trend, this chapter presents a general method for re-engineering non-ontological resources into ontologies, taking into account that non-ontological resources are highly heterogeneous in their data model and contents. The method is based on the so-called re-engineering patterns, which define a procedure that transforms the non-ontological resource components into ontology representational primitives. This chapter also presents the description of a software library that implements the transformations suggested by the patterns. Finally, the chapter depicts an evaluation of the method.


Classification Scheme Domain Expert Semantic Relation Lexical Entry Methodological Guideline 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Baeza-Yates Ricardo, Ribeiro-Neto Berthier (1999) Modern information retrieval, 1st edn. Addison Wesley, Harlow. ISBN 020139829XGoogle Scholar
  2. Brandon D (2005) Recursive database structures. J Comput Sci Coll 1:295–304Google Scholar
  3. Brockmans S, Haase P (2006) A metamodel and UML profile for networked ontologies. A complete reference. Technical report, University Karlsruhe, 2006Google Scholar
  4. Carkenord B (2002) Why build a logical data model.
  5. Gangemi A, Pisanelli D, Steve G (1998) Ontology integration: experiences with medical terminologies. Ontol Inf Syst 1:163–178Google Scholar
  6. Gangemi A, Guarino N, Masolo C, Oltramari A (2003) Sweetening WORDNET with DOLCE. AI Mag 24(3):13–24, ISSN 0738–4602Google Scholar
  7. Gangemi A, Catenacci C, Ciaramita M, Lehmann J (2006) Modelling ontology evaluation and validation. In: Proceedings of the 3rd European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC2006), LNCS, vol 4011. Springer, Budva, 2006Google Scholar
  8. García R, Celma O (2005) Semantic integration and retrieval of multimedia metadata. In: Proceedings of the ISWC 2005 workshop on knowledge markup and semantic annotation (Semannot’2005), Galway, IrelandGoogle Scholar
  9. Gómez-Pérez A, Manzano-Macho D (2004) An overview of methods and tools for ontology learning from texts. Knowl Eng Rev 19(3):187–212. ISSN 0269–8889, doi: S0269888905000251Google Scholar
  10. Gómez-Pérez A, Fernández-López M, Corcho O (2003) Ontological engineering, Advanced information and knowledge processing. Springer, New York/London. ISBN 1–85233–551–3Google Scholar
  11. Hepp M (2006) Products and services ontologies: a methodology for deriving owl ontologies from industrial categorization standards. Int J Semant Web Inf Syst 2(1):72–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hepp M (2007) Possible ontologies: how reality constrains the development of relevant ontologies. IEEE Internet Comput 11(1):90–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hepp M,de Brujin J (2007) GenTax: a generic methodology for deriving OWL and RDF-S ontologies from hierarchical classifications, thesauri, and inconsistent taxonomies. In: Proceedings of the 4th European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC2007). Springer, InnsbruckGoogle Scholar
  14. Hirst G (2004) Ontology and the lexicon. In: Handbook on ontologies in information systems. Springer, Berlin, pp 209–230Google Scholar
  15. Hodge G (2000) Systems of knowledge organization for digital libraries: beyond traditional authority files.
  16. Hyvöonen E, Viljanen K, Tuominen J, Seppöalöa K (2008) Building a national semantic web ontology and ontology service infrastructure -the FinnONTO approach. In: ESWC, vol 1. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 95–109Google Scholar
  17. ISO 2788 (1986) Documentation – guidelines for the establishment and development of monolingual thesaurus. International Standard Organization (ISO), Report ISO 2788Google Scholar
  18. ISO/IEC FDIS 11179–1 (2004) Information technology – metadata registries – part 1: framework. International Standard Organization (ISO), Report ISO/IEC FDIS 11179–1Google Scholar
  19. Kimball R, Caserta J (2004) The data warehouse ETL toolkit: practical techniques for extracting, cleaning, conforming, and delivering data. Wiley, New York. ISBN 0764567578Google Scholar
  20. Maedche A, Staab S (2001) Ontology learning for the semantic web. IEEE Intell Syst 16:72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Malinowski E, Zimányi E (2006) Hierarchies in a multidimensional model: from conceptual modeling to logical representation. Data Knowl Eng 59:348–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pinto S, Tempich C, Staab S (2004) DILIGENT: towards a fine-grained methodology for distributed, loosely-controlled and evolving engineering of ontologies. In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2004). IOS Press, Amsterdam, Washington, DC, pp 393–397, ISBN 1–58603–452–9Google Scholar
  23. Sabou M, Angeletou S, d’Aquin M, Barrasa J, Dellschaft K, Gangemi A, Lehman J, Lewen H, Maynard D, Mladenic D, Nissim M, Peters W, Presutti V, Villazón-Terrazas B (2007) Selection and integration of reusable components from formal or informal specifications. Technical report, NeOn project deliverable D2.2.1, 2007Google Scholar
  24. Schnurr H-P, Studer R, Sure Y (2001) Knowledge processes and ontologies. IEEE Intell Syst 1(16):26–34Google Scholar
  25. Soergel D (1995) Data models for an integrated thesaurus database. Compat Integr Order Syst 24(3):47–57Google Scholar
  26. Suárez-Figueroa MC, Aguado de Cea G, Buil C, Dellschaft K, Fernández-López M, García-Silva A, Gómez-Pérez A, Herrero G, Montiel-Ponsoda E, Sabou M, Villazón-Terrazas B, Yufei Z (2008) NeOn Methodology for building contextualized ontology networks. Technical report, NeOn project deliverable D5.4.1, 2008Google Scholar
  27. Suárez-Figueroa MC, Gómez-Pérez A, Villazón- Terrazas B (2009) How to write and use the ontology requirements specification document. In: OTM Conferences (2), pp 966–982, 2009Google Scholar
  28. Villazón-Terrazas B, Angeletou S, García-Silva A, Gómez-Pérez A, Maynard D, Suárez-Figueroa MC, Peters W (2008) NeOn deliverable D2.2.2 methods and tools for supporting reengineering. Technical report, NeOn, 2008Google Scholar
  29. Villazón-Terrazas B, Suárez-Figueroa MC, Gómez-Pérez A (2010) A pattern-based method for re-engineering non-ontological resources into ontologies. Int J Semant Web Inf Syst 6(4):27–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wright SE, Budin G (eds) (1997) Handbook of terminology management, basic aspects of terminology management. John Benjamins Publishing Company, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ontology Engineering Group, Departamento de Inteligencia Artificial, Facultad de InformáticaUniversidad Politécnica de MadridMadridSpain

Personalised recommendations